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In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful

Group Members
M Hunain khan (11TC41) Hafiz Saad khaliq (11TC03) Syed Zulfiqar Haider (11TC51) Syed Noor-ul-Hassan (11TC63)

Electrical Machines Project Name

Abstract
This project help us to stabilize the voltages. It protect the electrical appliances. It also helps to operate the appliances in case low voltage supply. Useful for automatic tripping in case of any fault in the supply voltages or any fault in the electrical appliance which is connected across it.

Schematic Diagram

List of Components

IC 741 Preset 10k linear R1, R2 = 10K, R3 = 470K C1 = 1000 uF / 25 V D1, D2 = 1N4007 T1 = BC547 TR1 = 0 12 V, 500 mA TR2 = 12 0 12 V, 5 Amp Z1, Z2 = 4.7V/400mW Relay = DPDT, 12 V, 200 or more Ohms

Components Description

Operational Amplifier : used to amplify weak electrical current in a circuit.

Zener Diodes :
Zener Diode is a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value the breakdown voltage known as the Zener voltage.

DPDT 12v Relay : relay is used for automatic switching.

Transistor (BC547B):
Transistor is used for pulse amplification.

Working & Construction


TR1 give output voltage to about 12.5 voltage . Adjust the preset so that the output of the IC just becomes high and triggers the relay. Now lowering the voltage to about 12 volts should make the op amp trip the relay to its original state or make it de-energized. Repeat and check the relay action by altering the voltage from 12 to 13 volts, which should make the relay flip flop correspondingly. Now connect both the transformer to its appropriate positions with the circuit. Your simple home made mains voltage stabilizer circuit is ready. When installed, the relay trips whenever the input voltage crosses 230 volts, bringing the output to 218 volts and keeps this distance continuously as the voltage reaches higher levels. When the voltage drops back to 225, the relay gets de-energized pulling the voltage to 238 volts and maintains the difference as the voltage further goes down. The above action keeps the output to the appliance well between 200 to 250 volts with fluctuations ranging from 180 to 265 volts.

Conclusion
This project is aimed at designing and implementation of an automatic voltage stabilizer for household appliances. This project can be implemented on large scale. It requires the initial cost only for designing and installation and not for utilization. Hence, such systems are very useful for the electrical appliances to reduce the possibility of faults and utilization of electric power. Therefore, such systems can bring significant reduction of the power consumption caused by the appliances. This project helps the user to save his money of electric bills and as well as the cost of the appliances repair. it also helps to maintain the standard voltages.

Acknowledgement
We wish to thank our respected teacher

Engr. Ghulam Sarwar


for their efforts to facilitate and provide us most suitable environment for the development of this project and our friends for their excellent contribution and support for the completion of this project.