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# CHEE 412

## Partial Differential Equations in

MATLAB
Queens University
March 2011

1
Introduction
Parabolic partial differential equations are
encountered in many chemical engineering
applications
MATLABs pdepe command can solve these
For partial dierential equations in two space
dimensions PDE Toolbox can solve four types
of equations: Elliptic, Parabolic, Hyperbolic
and Eigenvalue

2
Agenda
Solving a parabolic PDE in MATLAB using pdepe function
A mass transfer example
A heat transfer example
Solving a system of parabolic PDEs in MATLAB using pdepe
function
A mass transfer example
Solving other types of PDEs using PDE toolbox
A heat transfer example using PDE toolbox

3
PDE in One Space Dimension
The form of Parabolic PDEs in MATLAB

Boundary conditions

Initial conditions

)
x
u
, u , t , x ( s ))
x
u
, u , t , x ( b x (
x
x
t
u
)
x
u
, u , t , x ( c
m m
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c

0 ) u , u , t , xl ( b ). t , xl ( q ) u , t , xl ( p
x
= +
0 ) u , u , t , xr ( b ). t , xr ( q ) u , t , xr ( p
x
= +
) x ( f ) x , 0 ( u =

4
m=0 for Cartesian, for cylindrical,
1 and for spherical 2
Example 1: A Mass Transfer System
X
=
0

D
1

X
=
L
1

D
2

X
=
L
2

D
3

X
=
L
2

2
2
x
C
D
t
C
c
c
=
c
c
5
Initial Conditions
X
=
0

D
1

X
=
L
1

D
2

X
=
L
2

D
3

X
=
L
2

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0
1
C C
L x 0
=
s s
0 C
L x L
2 1
=
s s
0 C
L x L
3 2
=
s s
@ t=0
Boundary Conditions
X
=
0

D
1

X
=
L
1

D
2

X
=
L
2

D
3

X
=
L
3

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0
x
C
0 x
=
c
c
=
0
x
C
L x
3
=
c
c
=
x
C
D
x
C
D
L x
3 2
2
c
c
=
c
c

=
x
C
D
x
C
D
L x
2 1
1
c
c
=
c
c

=
Steps to Solve PDEs in MATLAB
1- Define the system
2- Specify boundary conditions
3- Specify initial conditions
4- Write System m-file
5-Write Boundary Conditions m-file
6- Write Initial condition m-file
7-Write MATLAB script M-file that solves and
plots
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1- Define the System
0 m =
9
2
2
x
C
D
t
C
c
c
=
c
c
1 ) u , u , t , x ( c
x
=
x 1 1 x
u . D
x
C
. D ) u , u , t , x ( b =
c
c
=
0 ) u , u , t , x ( s
x
=
)
x
u
, u , t , x ( s ))
x
u
, u , t , x ( b x (
x
x
t
u
)
x
u
, u , t , x ( c
m m
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c

2-Specify Boundary Conditions
0
x
C
, 0 x =
c
c
=
10
0 ) u , t , 0 ( p =
1
1 2
1
D
D D
) t , L ( q

=
0 ) u , t , L ( p
1
=
0 ) u , u , t , xl ( b ). t , xl ( q ) u , t , xl ( p
x
= +
0 ) u , u , t , xr ( b ). t , xr ( q ) u , t , xr ( p
x
= +
1
D
1
) t , 0 ( q =
0
x
C
D
D
) D D (
, L x
or
x
C
D
x
C
D , L x
1
1
1 2
1
2 1 1
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
x
C
. D
1
c
c
x
C
. D b
1
c
c
=
3- Specify Initial Conditions
0
0
C ) x , 0 ( u
C ) x , 0 ( C
=
=
11
) x ( f ) x , 0 ( u =
4- Write System m-file
function [c,b,s] = system(x,t,u,DuDx)
c = 1;
b =D1*DuDx;
s = 0;
end
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5-Write Boundary Conditions m-file
function [pl,ql,pr,qr] =
bc1(xl,ul,xr,ur,t)

pl = 0;
ql = 1/D1;
pr = 0;
qr = (D2-D1)/D1;
end

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6- Write Initial Conditions m-file
function value = initial1(x)

value = C0;

end

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7-Write MATLAB script M-file that
solves and plots
m = 0;
%Define the solution mesh
x = linspace(0,1,20);
t = linspace(0,2,10);
%Solve the PDE
u = pdepe(m,@system,@initial1,@bc1,x,t);
%Plot solution
surf(x,t,u);
title('Surface plot of solution.');
xlabel('Distance x');
ylabel('Time t');
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Results
16
Example 2: A Heat Transfer System
17
L
x
T=0
2
2
p
x
T
k
t
T
c
c
c
=
c
c

' '
q
x
T
k =
c
c

0 ) 0 , L ( T
0 ) 0 , x ( T
=
=
q
Defining System
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0 s
x
T
k b
1 c
=
c
c
=
=
)
x
u
, u , t , x ( s ))
x
u
, u , t , x ( b x (
x
x
t
u
)
x
u
, u , t , x ( c
m m
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c

2
2
p
x
T
k
t
T
c
c
c
=
c
c

Defining System
function
[c,b,s]=pdecoef(x,t,u,DuDx)
global rho cp k
c=rho*cp;
b=k*DuDx;
s=0;
end

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Initial Conditions
function u0=pdeic(x)
u0=0;
end

20
Boundary Conditions
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' '
q
x
T
k =
c
c

0 ) u , u , t , xl ( b ). t , xl ( q ) u , t , xl ( p
x
= +
0 ) u , u , t , xr ( b ). t , xr ( q ) u , t , xr ( p
x
= +
0 ) 0 , L ( T =
x
T
k b
c
c
=
Remember
x=L
p=T=ur
q=0
x=0
p=q
q=1
0 q
x
T
k
' '
= +
c
c
or
Writing Boundary Condition m-file
function[pl,ql,pr,qr]=pdebc(xl,
ul,xr,ur,t)
global q
pl=q;
ql=1;
pr=ur;
qr=0;
end

22
Calling the Solver
tend=10;
m=0;
x=linspace(0,L,200);
t=linspace(0,tend,50);
sol=pdepe(m,@pdecoef,@pdeic,@pde
bc,x,t);

23
Plotting
Temperature=sol(:,:,1);
figure
plot(t,Temperature(:,1))

24
System of PDEs in MATLAB
) u , u , t , x ( s )) u , u , t , x ( b x (
x
x u ) u , u , t , x ( c
.
.
.
) u , u , t , x ( s )) u , u , t , x ( b x (
x
x u ) u , u , t , x ( c
) u , u , t , x ( s )) u , u , t , x ( b x (
x
x u ) u , u , t , x ( c
x n x n
m m
nt x n
x 2 x 2
m m
t 2 x 2
x 1 x 1
m m
t 1 x 1
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
=
+
c
c
=

25
Boundary Conditions

26
0 ) u , u , t , xr ( b ). t , xr ( q ) u , t , xr ( p
0 ) u , u , t , xl ( b ). t , xl ( q ) u , t , xl ( p
.
.
.
0 ) u , u , t , xr ( b ). t , xr ( q ) u , t , xr ( p
0 ) u , u , t , xl ( b ). t , xl ( q ) u , t , xl ( p
x n n n
x n n n
x 1 1 1
x 1 1 1
= +
= +
= +
= +
Initial Conditions

27
) x ( f ) x , 0 ( u
.
.
.
) x ( f ) x , 0 ( u
) x ( f ) x , 0 ( u
n n
2 2
1 1
=
=
=
Mucosa

Saliva

R
L

R
S

Example 3: Mass Transport in the
Saliva Layer
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Drug
Transport
Direction
Lozenge

Blood Stream
R
M

g v
g
2
g
2
g
g
1 v
1
2
1
2
1
1
c k )
r
c
r
2
r
c
( D
t
c
c k )
r
c
r
2
r
c
( D
t
c

c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
Mucosa

Saliva

R
L

Boundary Conditions
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Drug
Transport
Direction
Lozenge

Blood Stream
) c )( c c (
D
k
r
C
) c )( c c (
D
k
r
C
L L L
L L L
R r g g R r g g , sol
gg
d
R r
g
R r 1 1 R r g g , sol
g 1
d
R r
1
= = =
= = =
=
c
c
=
c
c
Mucosa

Saliva

Boundary Conditions
30
Drug
Transport
Direction
Lozenge

Blood Stream
S S
S S
R r G R r g g
R r 2 R r 1 1
c c K
c c K
= =
= =
=
=
R
S

Mucosa

Saliva

Initial Conditions
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Drug
Transport
Direction
Lozenge

Blood Stream
Before any drug is released (at time = 0), the drug
and glucose concentrations in the saliva are equal
to zero: C
1
=C
g
=0

(

=
0
0
) x , 0 ( u
System
(

=
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
=
r 2 g
r 1 1
g
g
1
1
u D
u D
r
c
D
r
c
D
b
2 m
1
1
c
=
(

=
(

=
(

=
2 v
1 v
g v
1 v
u k
u k
c k
c k
s
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g v
g
2
g
2
g
g
1 v
1
1
2 2
1 v
1
2
1
2
1
1
c k )
r
c
r
2
r
c
( D
t
c
c k )
r
c
D r (
r
r c k )
r
c
r
2
r
c
( D
t
c

c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c

Boundary Conditions at R
L

33
) c c )( c c (
D
k
D
r
C
D
L L L
R r 1 1 R r g g , sol
g 1
d
1 R r
1
1 = = =
=
c
c
(
(
(
(

=
= =
= =
) u )( u c (
D
k
D
) u )( u c (
D
k
D
) u , t , R ( p
L L
L L
R r g 1 R r 2 g , sol
gg
d
g
R r 1 1 R r 2 g , sol
g 1
d
1
L
) c c )( c c (
D
k
D
r
C
D
L L L
R r g g R r g g , sol
gg
d
g R r
g
g = = =
=
c
c
(

=
1
1
) u , t , R ( q
L
Boundary Conditions at R
s

(

=
0
0
) u , t , R ( q
s
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S S
S S
R r G R r g g
R r 2 R r 1 1
c c K
c c K
= =
= =
=
=
(
(

=
(
(

=
= =
= =
= =
= =
S S
S S
S S
S S
R r G R r 2 g
R r 2 R r 1 1
R r G R r g g
R r 2 R r 1 1
s
c u K
c u K
c c K
c c K
) u , t , R ( p
System
function [c,b,s] = eqn
(x,t,u,DuDx)
c = [1; 1];
b = [D1; Dg] .* DuDx;
s = [-kv*u(1); -kv*u(2)];
end

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Boundary Conditions
function [pl,ql,pr,qr] =
bc2(xl,ul,xr,ur,t)
pl = [D1*kd/D1g*(csolg-ul(2))*(rou1 -
ul(1))); Dg*kd/Dgg*(csolg-ul(2))*(roug-
ul(2)))];
ql = [-1; -1];
pr = [K1*ur(1)-c2Rs; Kg*ur(2)-cGRs];
qr = [0; 0];
end

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Initial Conditions

function value = initial2(x);
value = [0;0];
end
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Solving and Plotting
m = 2;
x = linspace(0,1,10);
t = linspace(0,1,10);
sol = pdepe(m,@eqn,@initial2,@bc2,x,t);
u1 = sol(:,:,1);
u2 = sol(:,:,2);
subplot(2,1,1)
surf(x,t,u1);
title('u1(x,t)');
xlabel('Distance x');
ylabel('Time t');
subplot(2,1,2)
surf(x,t,u2);
title('u2(x,t)');
xlabel('Distance x');
ylabel('Time t');

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Plotting
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Single PDE in Two Space Dimensions
1. Elliptic

2. Parabolic

3. Hyperbolic

4. Eigenvalue
40
f au ) u c .( = + V V
f au ) u c .( du
t
= + V V
f au ) u c .( du
tt
= + V V
du au ) u c .( = + V V
Example 4
0 T
2
= V
T=10
T=0
Laplaces Equation
No Heat
No Heat
41
0
y
T
x
T
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
Step 1
Start the toolbox by typing in
>> pdetool
at the Matlab prompt
42
Step 2 Select Heat Transfer Application
43
44
Step 4 Create Rectangle
45
46
Step 6 Display Options
47
Step 7 Select Boundary 4
48
Step 8 Specify Boundary Condition
Steps 9 - 10 Select Boundary 1 and specify
condition
49
Steps 11 - 14 Specify remaining boundary
conditions
50
Step 15 The PDE Mode
51
52
Step 17 Specify PDE parameters
53
= V c V ) v .(
0 T
2
= V
PDE Solution: T Calculated
54
55
Step 19 Specify plotting parameters
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Finally the Solution: Temperature Contours
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Thank You!
Any questions?
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References
P. Howard, Partial Differential Equations in
MATLAB 7.0, Spring 2005.
Kim, K. S., & Simon, L. ,Transport Mechanisms in
oral transmucosal drug delivery: Implications for
pain management. Mathematical Biosciences ,
93-100, 2011.

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