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Properties of Normal Distribution

Data can be "distributed" (spread out) in different ways

Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution Many things closely follow a Normal Distribution: Heights Of People Size Of Things Produced By Machines

Errors In Measurements
Blood Pressure Marks On A Test

Normal Distribution

MEAN = MEDIAN = MODE

SYMMETRY ABOUT THE CENTER 50% OF VALUES LESS THAN THE MEAN AND 50% GREATER THAN THE MEAN

99.7% are within 3 standard deviations

Standard Scores
The number of standard deviations from the mean is also called the "Standard Score", "sigma" or "z-score"

Standard Scores

EXAMPLE

1.7m tall. Assuming this data is normally distributed

calculate the mean and standard deviation and find Z

MEAN

The mean is halfway between 1.1m and 1.7m:

Mean = (1.1m + 1.7m ) = 1.4 m 2

Standard Deviations
95% is 2 standard deviations either side of the mean (a total of 4 standard deviations) so: 1 standard deviation = (1.7m-1.1m) / 4 = (0.6m / 4) = 0.15 m

Z - SCORE

z is the "z-score" (Standard Score) x is the value to be standardized

is the mean
is the standard deviation

Z - SCORE
( X- ) = ( 1.85 - 1.4 ) = 3 1.5

APPLICATION
A Practical Example: Your company packages sugar in 1 kg bags. When you weigh a sample of bags you get these results: 1007g, 1032g, 1002g, 983g, 1004g, ... (a hundred measurements)

Mean = 1010g
Standard Deviation = 20g

Some values are less than 1000g ... How can you fix that?

SOLUTION 1 INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR

Adjust the mean amount in each bag The standard deviation is 20g, and we need 2.5 of them: 2.5 20g = 50g

SOLUTION 1 INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR

Adjust the accuracy of the machine
Or we can keep the same mean (of 1010g), but then we need 2.5 standard deviations to be equal to 10g:

10g / 2.5 = 4g
So the standard deviation should be 4g, like this: Reff: www.mathsisfun.com/data/standardnormal-distribution

THANKYOU

Dr. Seuss