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Properties of Normal Distribution

A R U N P R A B HAKAR ME TQE M PEC U N IVER SIT Y O F T EC H N O L OGY, C H A N D IGA RH

Data can be "distributed" (spread out) in different ways

Normal Distribution

Normal Distribution Many things closely follow a Normal Distribution: Heights Of People Size Of Things Produced By Machines

Errors In Measurements
Blood Pressure Marks On A Test

Normal Distribution

MEAN = MEDIAN = MODE

SYMMETRY ABOUT THE CENTER 50% OF VALUES LESS THAN THE MEAN AND 50% GREATER THAN THE MEAN

Standard Deviations for 3 sigma level

68% of values are within 1 standard deviation of the mean

95% are within 2 standard deviations

99.7% are within 3 standard deviations

Standard Scores
The number of standard deviations from the mean is also called the "Standard Score", "sigma" or "z-score"

Why Standardize ... ?


It can help you make decisions about your data.

Standard Scores

EXAMPLE

95% of students at school are between 1.1m and

1.7m tall. Assuming this data is normally distributed


calculate the mean and standard deviation and find Z

Score for one of your friend who is 1.85 m tall ?

MEAN

The mean is halfway between 1.1m and 1.7m:


Mean = (1.1m + 1.7m ) = 1.4 m 2

Standard Deviations
95% is 2 standard deviations either side of the mean (a total of 4 standard deviations) so: 1 standard deviation = (1.7m-1.1m) / 4 = (0.6m / 4) = 0.15 m

Z - SCORE

z is the "z-score" (Standard Score) x is the value to be standardized

is the mean
is the standard deviation

Z - SCORE
( X- ) = ( 1.85 - 1.4 ) = 3 1.5

APPLICATION
A Practical Example: Your company packages sugar in 1 kg bags. When you weigh a sample of bags you get these results: 1007g, 1032g, 1002g, 983g, 1004g, ... (a hundred measurements)

Mean = 1010g
Standard Deviation = 20g

Some values are less than 1000g ... How can you fix that?

SOLUTION 1 INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR


Adjust the mean amount in each bag The standard deviation is 20g, and we need 2.5 of them: 2.5 20g = 50g

So the machine should average 1050g, like this:

SOLUTION 1 INCREASE THE AMOUNT OF SUGAR


Adjust the accuracy of the machine
Or we can keep the same mean (of 1010g), but then we need 2.5 standard deviations to be equal to 10g:

10g / 2.5 = 4g
So the standard deviation should be 4g, like this: Reff: www.mathsisfun.com/data/standardnormal-distribution

Don't cry because it's over, smile because it happened.

THANKYOU

Dr. Seuss