264 views

Original Title: Dismath chap1 slide show

Uploaded by Adam Ozen

- Notes
- An Algorithm for Evaluating the Validity of Singly-Quantified Monadic Predicate Logic Arguments
- Discrete Maths 2002 Lecture 15 3 Slides Pp
- Groups
- Proof Strategies (Wolfman, 2012)
- Ai Unit-2 - Copy
- 03 Quantification
- 9 Most common logical fallacies.ppt
- 10 Revised Proofs in Predicate Logic
- Experiencing and the Creation of Meaning
- UNIT-III-AI-1351
- Document 4
- 10 tips RC
- how-to-create-a-love-and-logic-classroom
- Unit 1
- Abduction Fallacy
- What Was Aristotle Doing in His Early Logic Anyway [a Reply to Woods and Hansen]
- Auto Var Perm
- Elements of Symbolic logic
- Mastering the Analytical Reasoning

You are on page 1of 25

[Exclusive Or] [disjunction(or)] [conjunction(and)] [not] [ifthen] [if and only if]

Proposition Sentence that declare fact either true or false but not both. Examples: / 1. F and S are alphabet. 2. They are beautiful. x (is not proposition because is not declarative) 3. 2 + 1 = 10 / 4. x + y = 6 x (is not proposition because it is neither true or false)

Truth Table

-display relationship between truth values of propositions Types of truth tables: 1. the Negation of a Proposition. 2. Conjunction of Two Propositions. 3. Disjunction of Two Propositions. 4. Exclusive Or of Two Propositions. 5. Conditional Statement p q. 6. Biconditional p q. 7. The Truth Table of (p q) (p q). 8. Precedence of Logical Operators.

p T F

p F T

T T F F

T F T F

T T T F

p T T F F q T F T F p F T T F q

1

2 3 4 5

Tautology : a compound proposition that is always true no matter what the truth values of the propositional occurs in it. Example: pp Contradiction : a compound proposition that is always false. Example: pp Contingency : a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.

pp

pp

T

F

F

T

T

T

F

F

Compound

propositions that have the same truth values in all possible cases Example: p q = -p -q

a) b)

If it rains then, I stay at home If I dont stay at home, then it thus not rain

predicate or propositional function is a description of the property (or properties) a variable or subject may have. A proposition may be created from a propositional function by either assigning a value to the variable or by quantification.

In

general, the set of all x in the universe of discourse having the atribute P(x) is called the truth set of P(x). That is, the truth set of P(x) is : { x U |P(x) }

where

the truth value can be whether true or false... See more at: http://weartificialintelligence.blogspot.com /#sthash.DyhdBMPq.dpuf

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x + 2 = 2x, and the universe of discourse for x is the set f1;2;3g. Then... xP(x) is the proposition For every x in {1,2,3} x + 2 = 2x." This proposition is false. xP(x) is the proposition There exists x in {1,2,3} such that x + 2 = 2x. This proposition is true.

Example 1 : The propositional function P(x) is given by "x > 0". The universe of discourse for x is the set of integers.To create a proposition from P, we may assign a value for x. For example, setting x = -3, we get P(-3): "-3 > 0", which is false. setting x = 2, we get P(2): "2 > 0", which is true.

Example 2 :

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x has fur ". The universe of discourse for x is the set of all animals.

Example 3 : There also involve 2 or more variable. consider "x = y + 3" and we can denote it as Q(x , y). Q is a predicate and the question is what is the truth value for Q(1,2) and Q(3,0) ?

Answer

for Q(1,2),set x = 1 and y = 2 and substitute into "x = y + 3",which u get false. Same as Q(3,0),which u get true. Answer must be shown in table.

quantifier turns a propositional function into a proposition without assigning specific values for the variable. There are primarily two quantifiers:

The

universal quantification of P(x) is the proposition P(x) is true for all values x in the universe of discourse. : "For all x P(x)" or "For every x P(x)" is written xP(x).

Notation

example 1 :

Let

P(x) be the statement x+1>x. What is the truth value of the Quantification xP(x) where the universe of discourse consist of all real numbers ? : Since P(x) is true for all real numbers x, the quantification xP(x) is true.

x 1 x+1>x 2>1 x P(x) true

solution

2 3

3>2 4>3

True true

example 2 :

What

is the truth value of x P(x), where P(x) is the statement "x < 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

the statement x P(x) is the same as the conjunction P(1) ^ P(2) ^ P(3) ^ P(4), since the universe discourse consist of the integers 1,2,3 n 4. Since P(4) which the statements "4 < 10 " is false, it follows that x P(x) is false.

The

existential quantification of P(x) is the proposition "There exists an element x in the universe of discourse such that P(x) is true."

"There exists x such that P(x)" or "There is at least one x such that P(x)" is written x P(x).

Notation:

Example 1 :

Let P(x) denote the statement "x >3" What is the truth value of the quantification xP(x), where the universe discourse consist of all real numbers ? solution : Since "x>3" is true--for instance , when x = 4--the existancial qualification of P(x),which is xP(x) is true.

x 1 2 4

Example What

2:

is the truth value of xP(x), where P(x) is the statement "x > 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

Since

the universe of discourse is {1,2,3,4}, the proposition xP(x) is the same as the disjunction P(1) v P(2) v P(3) v P(4), Since P(4) which the statements "4 > 10 " is true, it follows that xP(x) is true.

TABLE 1 QUANTIFIERS

Statement When True ? When False ?

x P(x)

x P(x)

Hard

The ease of quantification is one of the features used to distinguish hard and soft sciences from each other. sciences

Social

- NotesUploaded byitrhv
- An Algorithm for Evaluating the Validity of Singly-Quantified Monadic Predicate Logic ArgumentsUploaded byJustine Leon A. Uro
- Discrete Maths 2002 Lecture 15 3 Slides PpUploaded byapi-26021617
- GroupsUploaded byNikk Effingham
- Proof Strategies (Wolfman, 2012)Uploaded byjessica jones
- Ai Unit-2 - CopyUploaded byThyagu Rajan
- 03 QuantificationUploaded byZhacantal Lizardo
- 9 Most common logical fallacies.pptUploaded byPraveen Gottupalli
- 10 Revised Proofs in Predicate LogicUploaded byOli Xvii
- Experiencing and the Creation of MeaningUploaded byDanielle Carvalho
- UNIT-III-AI-1351Uploaded byPuspha Vasanth R
- Document 4Uploaded bySandeep Singh
- 10 tips RCUploaded bywrexqtw
- how-to-create-a-love-and-logic-classroomUploaded byapi-316245425
- Unit 1Uploaded bysrikanth_rkce
- Abduction FallacyUploaded bySatyanarayana Hegde
- What Was Aristotle Doing in His Early Logic Anyway [a Reply to Woods and Hansen]Uploaded bycrm1756
- Auto Var PermUploaded byshriram1082883
- Elements of Symbolic logicUploaded byDaríoAndrésPintoRivera
- Mastering the Analytical ReasoningUploaded byMASROOR ALI SOOMRO
- A_New_Logic_1000016594Uploaded byAbdul Sami Abdul Latif
- 2.Lesson Plan AIUploaded byPrince Pavan
- 09-Methods of ProofUploaded byAhmed Said
- Book Review-ibuanyidanda and Some Basic Philosophical Problems in Africa Today Ft 2-2 2013Uploaded byFILOSOFIA THEORETICA: JOURNAL OF AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY, CULTURE AND RELIGIONS
- Smith and Cusbert - Logic, The DrillUploaded byjalkfjlsaf
- Hw 2 SolutionsUploaded bySadeep Madhushan
- Fuzzy Systems - A TutorialUploaded byEdson F. Okuda
- bab1_mtamUploaded byMohd Hafiz
- Responding to "On the history of the question of whether natural language is “illogical”"Uploaded byChristian Simon
- AAI SyllabusUploaded bypediredlakumar

- Apannaka Sutta (M 60)Uploaded byPiya_Tan
- Chap31 Lynch a Functionalist Theory of TruthUploaded byGuixo Dos Santos
- Noema and Meaning in HusserUploaded byJosé Manuel Osorio
- Socialist History - TcherkesoffUploaded byCaetano Bresci
- DeductionUploaded byAsghar Ali Ghanghro
- Stern - Meaning and Change of MeaningUploaded byPaulina Niedziałek
- Chapter 2 Boolean Algebra Logic GatesUploaded byZahra Jafar
- Boole's law of thotUploaded bybhaskarsg
- BB_An Alternative Evaluation Method for Likert Type Attitude Scales_Rough Set Data AnalysisUploaded bycuachanhdong
- Testing philosophical theories.pdfUploaded byhenfa
- Linear Equation in One VariableUploaded byDanilo de Mesa
- Neutrosophic Rough Soft Set – A Decision Making Approach to Appendicitis ProblemUploaded byMia Amalia
- Numbers, sets and axioms - Hamilton (1).pdfUploaded bymanuel
- 0C803967d01Uploaded byAmit K Awasthi
- , Lloyd P. Gerson -The Stoics Selected Writings and Testimonia (2008).pdfUploaded byRobert Brenner
- Omniscience (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Uploaded byeseb666
- Discrete Mathematics_Chapter 02_Relations and Chen WUploaded byhexram
- Robert Flint, Anti-Theistic TheoriesUploaded bymaivin2
- sdfsdgsUploaded bycatsarefunny
- Discrete Maths xUploaded byssssoumiksen
- ACHIEVABLE SINGLE–VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKSUploaded byMia Amalia
- Aboul Hosn ResumeUploaded byspitzersglare
- Intentional Existence And Ontological Commitment In A DiscourseUploaded bysivanyaalan
- Fuzzy LogicUploaded bysunilkumarece
- Weigelt - Logic of Life Heidegger 039 s Retrieval of Aristotle 039 s Concept of Logos Stockholm Studies in Philosophy 24Uploaded bypavelveraza
- chapter 02.pptUploaded bymichaeluriel
- Burnham Kant GlossaryUploaded bynachothefreeloader
- TutorialUploaded byspx2
- Karl Aschenbrenner A Companion to Kants Critique of Pure Reason.pdfUploaded byIsabelIbarra
- Kendall Sad9 Pp 09 GEUploaded byAlexis Tajon