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Propositional

Logic Propositional Equivalences Predicates and Quantifiers

[Exclusive Or] [disjunction(or)] [conjunction(and)] [not] [ifthen] [if and only if]

Proposition Sentence that declare fact either true or false but not both. Examples: / 1. F and S are alphabet. 2. They are beautiful. x (is not proposition because is not declarative) 3. 2 + 1 = 10 / 4. x + y = 6 x (is not proposition because it is neither true or false)

We use letters to represent propositions such as p,q,r,s

Truth Table
-display relationship between truth values of propositions Types of truth tables: 1. the Negation of a Proposition. 2. Conjunction of Two Propositions. 3. Disjunction of Two Propositions. 4. Exclusive Or of Two Propositions. 5. Conditional Statement p q. 6. Biconditional p q. 7. The Truth Table of (p q) (p q). 8. Precedence of Logical Operators.

Table 1: Truth table for negation Of a proposition

Table 3: Truth table for the Disjunction of two Propositions p q p q

p T F

p F T

T T F F

T F T F

T T T F

Table 2: Truth table for the Conjunction of two Propositions p T T F F q T F T F p q T F F F

Table 4: Truth table for the Exclusive Or of two Propositions


p T T F F q T F T F p F T T F q

Table 5: Truth table for the Implication pq p T T F F q T F T F p q T F T T

Table 7: Precedence of Logical Operators Operator Precedence

1
2 3 4 5

Table 6: Truth table for The Biconditional p q p T T F F q T F T F p q T F F T

Tautology : a compound proposition that is always true no matter what the truth values of the propositional occurs in it. Example: pp Contradiction : a compound proposition that is always false. Example: pp Contingency : a compound proposition that is neither a tautology nor a contradiction.

pp

pp

T
F

F
T

T
T

F
F

pp is always true pis always false

Compound

propositions that have the same truth values in all possible cases Example: p q = -p -q
a) b)

If it rains then, I stay at home If I dont stay at home, then it thus not rain

predicate or propositional function is a description of the property (or properties) a variable or subject may have. A proposition may be created from a propositional function by either assigning a value to the variable or by quantification.

In

general, the set of all x in the universe of discourse having the atribute P(x) is called the truth set of P(x). That is, the truth set of P(x) is : { x U |P(x) }

where

the truth value can be whether true or false... See more at: http://weartificialintelligence.blogspot.com /#sthash.DyhdBMPq.dpuf

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x + 2 = 2x, and the universe of discourse for x is the set f1;2;3g. Then... xP(x) is the proposition For every x in {1,2,3} x + 2 = 2x." This proposition is false. xP(x) is the proposition There exists x in {1,2,3} such that x + 2 = 2x. This proposition is true.

Example 1 : The propositional function P(x) is given by "x > 0". The universe of discourse for x is the set of integers.To create a proposition from P, we may assign a value for x. For example, setting x = -3, we get P(-3): "-3 > 0", which is false. setting x = 2, we get P(2): "2 > 0", which is true.

Example 2 :

Suppose P(x) is the predicate x has fur ". The universe of discourse for x is the set of all animals.

P(x) is a true statement if, x is a cat. P(x) is false if, x is an alligator.

Example 3 : There also involve 2 or more variable. consider "x = y + 3" and we can denote it as Q(x , y). Q is a predicate and the question is what is the truth value for Q(1,2) and Q(3,0) ?
Answer

for Q(1,2),set x = 1 and y = 2 and substitute into "x = y + 3",which u get false. Same as Q(3,0),which u get true. Answer must be shown in table.

quantifier turns a propositional function into a proposition without assigning specific values for the variable. There are primarily two quantifiers:

the universal quantifier the existential quantifier

The

universal quantification of P(x) is the proposition P(x) is true for all values x in the universe of discourse. : "For all x P(x)" or "For every x P(x)" is written xP(x).

Notation

example 1 :
Let

P(x) be the statement x+1>x. What is the truth value of the Quantification xP(x) where the universe of discourse consist of all real numbers ? : Since P(x) is true for all real numbers x, the quantification xP(x) is true.
x 1 x+1>x 2>1 x P(x) true

solution

2 3

3>2 4>3

True true

example 2 :
What

is the truth value of x P(x), where P(x) is the statement "x < 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

the statement x P(x) is the same as the conjunction P(1) ^ P(2) ^ P(3) ^ P(4), since the universe discourse consist of the integers 1,2,3 n 4. Since P(4) which the statements "4 < 10 " is false, it follows that x P(x) is false.

The

existential quantification of P(x) is the proposition "There exists an element x in the universe of discourse such that P(x) is true."
"There exists x such that P(x)" or "There is at least one x such that P(x)" is written x P(x).

Notation:

Example 1 :

Let P(x) denote the statement "x >3" What is the truth value of the quantification xP(x), where the universe discourse consist of all real numbers ? solution : Since "x>3" is true--for instance , when x = 4--the existancial qualification of P(x),which is xP(x) is true.

x 1 2 4

x>3 1>3 2>3 4>3

x P(x) true true false

Example What

2:

is the truth value of xP(x), where P(x) is the statement "x > 10" and the universe discourse consist of the positive integers not exceed 4 ?

Solution:

Since

the universe of discourse is {1,2,3,4}, the proposition xP(x) is the same as the disjunction P(1) v P(2) v P(3) v P(4), Since P(4) which the statements "4 > 10 " is true, it follows that xP(x) is true.

TABLE 1 QUANTIFIERS
Statement When True ? When False ?

x P(x)

P(x) is true for every x.

There is an x for which P(x) is false. P(x) is false for every x.

x P(x)

There is an x for which P(x) is true.

Hard

versus soft science

The ease of quantification is one of the features used to distinguish hard and soft sciences from each other. sciences

Social

In the social sciences, quantification is an integral part of economics and psychology.