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# ANOVA

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
PRESENTED BY: DIPAL GANDHI M. PHARM II DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY L. M. COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

INTRODUCTION
ANOVA is a method of analyzing data from designed experiments whose objective is to compare two or more group means. Factorial ANOVA has two independent variables which are crossed with each other. That means each value of one variable is paired with every value of other variable.

TYPES OF ANOVA

ANOVA

## One-Way ANOVA One independent variable One dependent variable

Two way ANOVA Two or more independent variables Two dependent variables

## 22 Full factorial with replicate

Concentration Pure Methanol 50% Methanol Room Temperature 600 Temperature 108 98 194 202 120 130 144 140

## Two way ANOVA

concentration
Pure Methanol 50% Methanol
Sum Square Sum of Squares SS/4

Main Effect A

(SS/4)-CT

Room

108

120

456

207936

Temperature

98

130

670336

167584

6272

60 C

194

144

680

462400

Temperature

202

140

Sum

602

534

1136

Square

362404

285156

1290496

It is square of sum of grand total of all the observations divided by number of observations

SS

647560

161312

CT

SS/4

161890

Main Effect B

It is sum of squares of grand total of the observations (in column) divided by product of number of rows and replication which is subtracted by CT

578

Interaction term AB
concentration
Interaction term AB
Square of sum Square of sum Sum of Squares

Pure Methanol

50% Methanol

Sum

Sum

SS/2

MS-A-B-CT

Room temp.

108

120

206

250

42436

62500

98

130

342408

171204

3042

60 C

194

144

396

284

156816

80656

202

140

Total

TOTAL

Pure Methanol

50% Methanol

Square

Square

Sum of squares

SS-CT

Room
108 120
130 144 140

11664
9604 37636 40804

14400
16900 20736 19600 171344 10032

temp.
98 194 202

60 C

Residual
Residual = Total (10032) Main effect A (578) Main effect B (6272) Interaction term AB (3042) = 140

Equations
Main effect A= ( Cj2)/Rr - CT Main effect B= ( Ri2 ) /Rr CT
Cj= Sum of observations in column j Ri= Sum of observations in row i R= number of rows r= number of replicates per cell CT= Correction term

## Interaction term AB= Cij2/2 A B - CT Total= X2 - CT

X = All Observations in each column and row

## Sigma stat plot

Source of Variation

DF

SS

MS

Main Effect A

6272

6272

179.2

<0.001

Main Effect B

578

578

16.514

0.015

Interaction Term AB

3042

3042

86.914

<0.001

Residual

140

35

Total

10032

1433.143

## Multiple linear regression analysis

ANOVA
Df SS MS F Significance F

Regression

9892

3297.333

94.20952

0.000363456

Residual

140

35

Total

10032

## Sigma stat plot

Source of Variation

## Multiple linear regression

DF SS

DF
1
1 1 4

SS
6272
578

Main Effect A
Main Effect B Interaction Term AB Residual

Regression

9892

Residual
3042 140

140

## While in both the case RESIDUAL will be same

Conclusion
Sigma stat plot is one of the software to carry out ANOVA. Over here we get individual sum of squares which is an advantage over multiple linear regression analysis. While any of the independent variable has a significant effect on the dependent variable can be easily known from multiple linear regression analysis.