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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits

An Electrical System
Transmission system

Source
1) Source

Control

Load

to provide energy for the electrical system

can be voltage source or current source


2) Transmission system conducts the energy from source to load 3) Control apparatus to control the flow of energy 4) Load to absorb electrical energy supplied by source

Ideal voltage sources

Figure 2.1, 2.2

Various representations of an electrical system

2-1

Symbol for ideal current source


By convention : +ve current flow out of a voltage thru +ve terminal

Figure 2.3, 2.4

Symbols for dependent sources

2-2

Some Definitions
Electrical network a collection of elements thru which current flows Branch any portion of a circuit with two terminals connected to it. A branch may consist of one or more circuit elements. Node the junction of two or more branches

Definition of a branch

Figure 2.5, 2.6

Definitions of node and supernode

2-3

Definition of a loop
Figure 2.7

Figure 2.7, 2.8

Definition of a mesh
Figure 2.8

2-4

Illustration of Kirchhoffs current law


Figure 2.11

Demonstration of KCL

Figure 2.11, 2.13

2-5

Electric Charge and Current


An electric system transmits energy due to movement of electric charge. So fundamental electric quantity is charge smallest amount of charge- electron

Electrical current time rate of charge of charge passing a predetermined area

Example 1
Determine current given charge suppose that charge is given by

For current to flow, there must exist a closed circuit. i = current flowing in closed circuit

Note : Current flowing from source to load is the same as current flowing from load to source - No current is lost around closed circuit - This principle is known as Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)

KCL state that the sum of current at a node must equal to zero, or

For node 1

Define : current entering a node as ve current leaving a node as +ve Node 1 KCL :

Exercise

Voltage and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law


change moving in an electric circuit given rise to a current. So it must take some work, or energy for the charge to move between two points in a circuit. Total work per unit charge associated with the motion of charge between two points is called VOLTAGE Definition : The voltage, or potential difference, between two points in a circuit indicates the energy required to move charge from one point to the other The direction or polarity of the voltage related to whether energy is being dissipated or generated as in case of current, energy in the system is not lost or the sum of voltages associated with sources must equal the sum of the load voltages The net voltage around a closed circuit is zero KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW (KVL)

Introduce reference (ground) voltage Voltage V2 is the difference between two node voltages Va and V2 = Va Vb

Select any mode as the reference node, so all node voltages may be referenced to this reference voltage. In figure, select node b as reference (normally assign 0V at reference) So, Vb = 0V V1 = 1.5V V2 = Vab = Va Vb = Va 0 = Va but Va and V1 are the same so V1 = V2

Exercise 1
Determine unknown voltage V2 Vs = 12V V1 = 6V V3 = 1V

KVL: -Vs + V1 + V2 + V3 = 0 V2 = 5V V4 = 5V

Exercise 2
Vs = 12V, Vs2 = -4V
1

V2 = 2V , V3 = 6V V5 = 12V 1
Find V1 and V4 ?

KVL : - V2 + Vs2 V4 = 0 V4 = -V2 +Vs2

- Vs1 - V1 +V2 +V3 = 0

Electrical Power
Power is defined as work per unit time P = work = work x charge time charge time = voltage x current P = VI Watts (W)

Power is a signal signed quantity positive power negative power Positive Power = power dissipated i + v i

P = vi (power dissipated)

Negative Power = power generated

+ v

P = vi (power generated)

Exercise
+

+V

VB = 12V V1 = 8V V2 = 4V

Load 1

Load 2

V2

I = 0.1A

Compute power dissipated (generated) by each element Pgenerated = Pdissipated?

Resistance and Ohms Law


When current flows thru a wire/other circuit elements, it encounters resistance This causes energy to be dissipated (heat) According to Ohms Law

V = IR
Voltage is proportional to the current flowing thru it

R Ohms ()
-

1=1V A

The resistance of a material depends on Resistivity () ; the inverse called conductivity () For a cylindrical resistance element, resistance is proportional to length of sample, l , and inversely proportional to its cross sectional area A and conductivity

A
l

R=l A

Convenient to define conductance of circuit element as the inverse of its resistance, used symbol G G=I Siemen (S) R Thus ohms law can be written as I = GV (V = IR = I ) G
For resistors, in addition to resistance in ohm, the max allowable power dissipation (power rating) is specified. Exceeding this power rating could cause overheating and burn out. Power dissipated in R P = IV = I . IR = IR = V R

Example
Determine the minimum resistor size that can be connected to a given battery w/o exceeding the resistors 1/4W power rating

Solution
Power rating = 0.25W Battery voltage = 1.5V

+ 1.5 V P = V R 0.25 (1.5) R R (1.5) = 9 0.25

(1/4 W)

So min R = 9

Exercise

VB

Determine

and power supplied by battery if:

i1 = 0.2 mA i2 = 0.4 mA i3 = 1.2 mA

VB = 3 V

Open and Short Circuit


Short circuit :- 1) R
0 2) V = 0 for any

i
i

3) Allow unimpeded current

+ V

Open Circuit :- 1) R
2) I = 0

8
+ V

i = 0 for any V

Series Resistors
-

R1

+ V1 +

by KVL

+
V2 R2

1.5 = V1 + V2

1.5 V

= iR1 + iR2
= i(R1 + R2)

Series Circuit Def : Two or more circuit elements are said to be in series if the current flow from one elements exclusively flows into the next element. In the example, to the battery, the resistors appear an a single equivalent resistance, REQ where REQ = R1 + R 2 So, for series resistance

Voltage Divider
Closely tied to series resistors Source voltage divides among the resistors in series according to KVL i R1

+ V1 V
+

V = i (R1 + R2+R3)

+
V2 R2

V = i REQ
i= V REQ

- V3 +
-

R3 We can write the voltage across each R V1 = iR1 = R1 V REQ V2 = iR2 = R2 V REQ V3 = iR3 = R3 V REQ

The general form of the voltage divider with N series resistors and a voltage source Vn = Rn R1 + R2 +.Rn +.+RN Vs

Ex: i Vs
+

R1 + V1

Determine V3

R2 V2

R1 = 10 ohm

- V3 +
R3

R2 = 6 ohm
R3= 8 ohm Vs = 3V V3 = iR3 = 1 (8) = 1V 8

V3 = R3 Vs = 8 x 3 = 1V REQ 24 -Vs + V1 + V2 + V3 = 0 Vs = i (R1 + R2 + R3) Vs = i (24) i =1A 8

Parallel Resistors
Def : Two or more circuit elements are said to be in parallel if the elements share the same terminals. From KVL , it follows that the elements will have the same voltage. Ex:

i1 is
R1 R2

i2
R3

i3

V
-

KCL requires that is = i1 + i2 + i3 ohms law i1 = V , i2 = V, i3 = V R1 R2 R3 so is = V 1 + 1 + 1 = V 1 R1 R2 R3 REQ

1= 1+1+1

Where

REQ R1 R2 R3
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + .... + 1 REQ R1 R2 R3 1 RN

or REQ =

1 + 1 + + 1 R1 R2 RN

Note : for parallel combinations, normally indicate R1 // R2 // R3 .

Current Divider
From circuit , i1 = V, i2 = V, i3 = V R1 R2 R3

ohms law:

V = i REQ 1 i1 = i REQ = i 1+1+1 R1 R1 R2 R3 R1 1 i = R1 1+1+1 R1 R2 R3

i2 =

i REQ = R2

R2 1+1+1 R1 R2 R3

i
i3 = i REQ = R3

R3 1+1+1
R1 R2 R3

1
So :

in =

Rn 1 + 1 +.. + 1 R1 R2 Rn

is

Ex: R1

i1
R2 Is

i2
R3

i3

V +

Determine i1 , R1 = 10 R2 = 2 R3 = 20 Is = 4 A

1
i1 = R1 1+1 +1 R1 R2 R3 Is =

10 1+1 +1
10 2 20

(4)

13

Ex:

1 k

R1

+
5V
+

1 k

V3 1 k

+
Vs
+

V3 R2//R3

Determine V3