An Electrical System
Transmission system
Source
1) Source
Control
Load
21
22
Some Definitions
Electrical network a collection of elements thru which current flows Branch any portion of a circuit with two terminals connected to it. A branch may consist of one or more circuit elements. Node the junction of two or more branches
Definition of a branch
23
Definition of a loop
Figure 2.7
Definition of a mesh
Figure 2.8
24
Demonstration of KCL
25
Example 1
Determine current given charge suppose that charge is given by
For current to flow, there must exist a closed circuit. i = current flowing in closed circuit
Note : Current flowing from source to load is the same as current flowing from load to source  No current is lost around closed circuit  This principle is known as Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL)
KCL state that the sum of current at a node must equal to zero, or
For node 1
Define : current entering a node as ve current leaving a node as +ve Node 1 KCL :
Exercise
Introduce reference (ground) voltage Voltage V2 is the difference between two node voltages Va and V2 = Va Vb
Select any mode as the reference node, so all node voltages may be referenced to this reference voltage. In figure, select node b as reference (normally assign 0V at reference) So, Vb = 0V V1 = 1.5V V2 = Vab = Va Vb = Va 0 = Va but Va and V1 are the same so V1 = V2
Exercise 1
Determine unknown voltage V2 Vs = 12V V1 = 6V V3 = 1V
KVL: Vs + V1 + V2 + V3 = 0 V2 = 5V V4 = 5V
Exercise 2
Vs = 12V, Vs2 = 4V
1
V2 = 2V , V3 = 6V V5 = 12V 1
Find V1 and V4 ?
Electrical Power
Power is defined as work per unit time P = work = work x charge time charge time = voltage x current P = VI Watts (W)
Power is a signal signed quantity positive power negative power Positive Power = power dissipated i + v i
P = vi (power dissipated)
+ v
P = vi (power generated)
Exercise
+
+V
VB = 12V V1 = 8V V2 = 4V
Load 1
Load 2
V2
I = 0.1A
V = IR
Voltage is proportional to the current flowing thru it
R Ohms ()

1=1V A
The resistance of a material depends on Resistivity () ; the inverse called conductivity () For a cylindrical resistance element, resistance is proportional to length of sample, l , and inversely proportional to its cross sectional area A and conductivity
A
l
R=l A
Convenient to define conductance of circuit element as the inverse of its resistance, used symbol G G=I Siemen (S) R Thus ohms law can be written as I = GV (V = IR = I ) G
For resistors, in addition to resistance in ohm, the max allowable power dissipation (power rating) is specified. Exceeding this power rating could cause overheating and burn out. Power dissipated in R P = IV = I . IR = IR = V R
Example
Determine the minimum resistor size that can be connected to a given battery w/o exceeding the resistors 1/4W power rating
Solution
Power rating = 0.25W Battery voltage = 1.5V
(1/4 W)
So min R = 9
Exercise
VB
Determine
VB = 3 V
i
i
+ V
Open Circuit : 1) R
2) I = 0
8
+ V
i = 0 for any V
Series Resistors

R1
+ V1 +
by KVL
+
V2 R2
1.5 = V1 + V2
1.5 V
= iR1 + iR2
= i(R1 + R2)
Series Circuit Def : Two or more circuit elements are said to be in series if the current flow from one elements exclusively flows into the next element. In the example, to the battery, the resistors appear an a single equivalent resistance, REQ where REQ = R1 + R 2 So, for series resistance
Voltage Divider
Closely tied to series resistors Source voltage divides among the resistors in series according to KVL i R1
+ V1 V
+
V = i (R1 + R2+R3)
+
V2 R2
V = i REQ
i= V REQ
 V3 +

R3 We can write the voltage across each R V1 = iR1 = R1 V REQ V2 = iR2 = R2 V REQ V3 = iR3 = R3 V REQ
The general form of the voltage divider with N series resistors and a voltage source Vn = Rn R1 + R2 +.Rn +.+RN Vs
Ex: i Vs
+
R1 + V1
Determine V3
R2 V2
R1 = 10 ohm
 V3 +
R3
R2 = 6 ohm
R3= 8 ohm Vs = 3V V3 = iR3 = 1 (8) = 1V 8
Parallel Resistors
Def : Two or more circuit elements are said to be in parallel if the elements share the same terminals. From KVL , it follows that the elements will have the same voltage. Ex:
i1 is
R1 R2
i2
R3
i3
V

1= 1+1+1
Where
REQ R1 R2 R3
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + .... + 1 REQ R1 R2 R3 1 RN
or REQ =
1 + 1 + + 1 R1 R2 RN
Current Divider
From circuit , i1 = V, i2 = V, i3 = V R1 R2 R3
ohms law:
i2 =
i REQ = R2
R2 1+1+1 R1 R2 R3
i
i3 = i REQ = R3
R3 1+1+1
R1 R2 R3
1
So :
in =
Rn 1 + 1 +.. + 1 R1 R2 Rn
is
Ex: R1
i1
R2 Is
i2
R3
i3
V +
Determine i1 , R1 = 10 R2 = 2 R3 = 20 Is = 4 A
1
i1 = R1 1+1 +1 R1 R2 R3 Is =
10 1+1 +1
10 2 20
(4)
13
Ex:
1 k
R1
+
5V
+
1 k
V3 1 k
+
Vs
+
V3 R2//R3
Determine V3