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# 1

Directional Drilling
Calculations
2
Type I Type II Type III
Build
and Hold
Build-Hold
and Drop
Continuous
Build
KOP
EOC
3
Ax
Ay
I
I
r
r
AL
In the BUILD
Section
Ax = r (1 - cos I)
Ay = r sin I
AL = r I
deg
I r
180
= L
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
BUR *
000 , 18
r
t
=
4
N18E
N55W
S20W
S23E
Azimuth
Angle
5
Example 1: Design of Directional Well
Design a directional well with the following
restrictions:
Total horizontal departure = 4,500 ft
True vertical depth (TVD) = 12,500 ft
Depth to kickoff point (KOP) = 2,500 ft
Rate of build of hole angle = 1.5 deg/100 ft
Type I well (build and hold)
6
Example 1: Design of Directional Well
(i) Determine the maximum hole angle
required.

(ii) What is the total measured depth (MD)?

(MD = well depth measured
along the wellbore,
not the vertical depth)
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(i) Maximum
Inclination
Angle
r
1
=
18 000
15
,
. t
r
2
= 0
( )
D
4 1
12 500 2 500
10 000

=
=
D
ft
, ,
,
8
(i) Maximum Inclination Angle
(
(

+
=
(
(

+
+ +
=

500 , 4 ) 820 , 3 ( 2
500 , 4 ) 820 , 3 ( 2 000 , 10 500 , 4 000 , 10
tan 2
x ) r r ( 2
x ) r r ( 2 ) D D ( x D D
tan 2
2 2
1 -
4 2 1
4 2 1
2
1 4
2
4 1 4 1
max
u

3 . 26
max
= u
9
(ii) Measured Depth of Well
ft 265 , 9 L
105 , 4 sin L
ft 4,105
395 500 , 4 x
ft 395
) 26.3 cos - 3,820(1
) cos 1 ( r x
Hold
Hold
Hold
1 Build
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
u
u

10
(ii) Measured Depth of Well
265 , 9
180
26.3
3,820 2,500

L r D MD
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ + =
t
u
ft 518 , 13 MD =
11
* The actual well path hardly ever coincides with
the planned trajectory
* Important: Hit target within specified radius
12
What is known?
I
1
, I
2
, A
1
,

A
2
,

AL = AMD
1-2
Calculate
| = dogleg angle

DLS = |-100/AL

13
Wellbore Surveying Methods
Average Angle
Balanced Tangential
Minimum Curvature
Tangential

Other Topics
Kicking off from Vertical
Controlling Hole Angle
14
I, A, AMD
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Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations
The table below gives data from a directional survey.

Survey Point Measured Depth Inclination Azimuth
along the wellbore Angle Angle
ft I, deg A, deg

A 3,000 0 20
B 3,200 6 6
C 3,600 14 20
D 4,000 24 80

Based on known coordinates for point C well calculate
the coordinates of point D using the above information.
16
Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations
Point C has coordinates:

x = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the east
y = 1,000 (ft) positive towards the north
z = 3,500 (ft) TVD, positive downwards
Z
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
Az
N
D
C
Ay
Ax
17
Example - Wellbore Survey Calculations
I. Calculate the x, y, and z coordinates
of points D using:

(i) The Average Angle method
(ii) The Balanced Tangential method
(iii) The Minimum Curvature method

(iv) The Radius of Curvature method
(v) The Tangential method
18
The Average Angle Method
Find the coordinates of point D using
the Average Angle Method

At point C, X = 1,000 ft
Y = 1,000 ft
Z = 3,500 ft

80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
19
The Average Angle Method

80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
Z
E (x)
N (y)
C
D
z
N
D
C
y
x
20
The Average Angle Method
21
The Average Angle Method
This method utilizes the average of I
1
and I
2
as an
inclination, the average of A
1
and A
2
as a direction, and
assumes all of the survey interval (AMD) to be tangent
to the average angle.
From: API Bulletin D20. Dec. 31, 1985
22
ft 71 . 83 50 cos sin19 400

cos sin
50
2
80 20
2
19
2
24 14
2
= =
A = A
=
+
=
+
=
=
+
=
+
=

AVG AVG
D C
AVG
D C
AVG
A I MD North
A A
A
I I
I
The Average Angle Method
23
The Average Angle Method
ft
A I MD East
AVE AVG
76 . 99 50 sin sin19 400
sin sin
= =
A = A

ft
I Vert
AVG
21 . 378 cos19 400
cos 400
= =
= A

24
The Average Angle Method
At Point D,

X = 1,000 + 99.76 = 1,099.76 ft

Y = 1,000 + 83.71 = 1,083.71 ft

Z = 3,500 + 378.21 = 3,878.21 ft
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The Balanced Tangential Method
This method treats half the measured distance (AMD/2) as
being tangent to I
1
and A
1
and the remainder of

the
measured distance (AMD/2) as being tangent to I
2
and A
2.

From: API Bulletin D20. Dec. 31, 1985
26
The Balanced Tangential Method
ft 59.59

) 80 cos 24 sin 20 cos 14 (sin
2
400

) A cos I sin A cos I (sin
2
MD
North
D D C C
=
+ =
+
A
= A

27
The Balanced Tangential Method
96.66ft

) 80 sin 24 sin 20 sin 14 (sin
2
400

) A sin I sin A sin I (sin
2
MD
East
D D C C
=
+ =
+
A
= A

28
The Balanced Tangential Method
ft 77 . 376 ) 14 cos 24 (cos
2
400

) I cos I (cos
2
MD
Vert
C D
= + =
+
A
= A

29
The Balanced Tangential Method
At Point D,

X = 1,000 + 96.66 = 1,096.66 ft

Y = 1,000 + 59.59 = 1,059.59 ft

Z = 3,500 + 376.77 = 3,876.77 ft
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Minimum Curvature Method
|
31
Minimum Curvature Method
This method smooths the two straight-line segments of the
Balanced Tangential Method using the Ratio Factor RF.

RF = (2/DL) * tan(DL/2) (DL= | and must be in radians)
32
Minimum Curvature Method
The dogleg angle, | , is given by:

0.935609

)) 20 80 cos( 1 ( 24 sin sin14 - 14) - cos(24

)) A A cos( 1 ( I sin I sin ) I I cos( Cos
C D D C C D
= =
=
=
=

|
|
33
Minimum Curvature Method
The Ratio Factor,
ft 25 . 60 01099 . 1 * 59 . 59
RF ) I cos I sin A cos I (sin
2
MD
North
01099 . 1
2
67 . 20
tan *
3608 . 0
2
RF

Z
tan
2
RF
D D C C
= =
+
A
= A
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

|
|
2
34
Minimum Curvature Method
ft 380.91 1.01099 * 376.77

RF ) I cos I (cos
2
MD
Vert
ft 97.72 1.01099 * 96.66
RF ) A sin I sin A sin I (sin
2
MD
East
D C
D D C C
= =
+
A
= A
= =
+
A
= A
35
Minimum Curvature Method
At Point D,

X = 1,000 + 97.72 = 1,097.72 ft

Y = 1,000 + 60.25 = 1,060.25 ft

Z = 3,500 + 380.91 =3,888.91 ft

36
ft 79.83

180
) 20 80 )( 14 24 (
) 20 sin 80 )(sin 24 cos 400(cos14

180
) A A )( I I (
) A sin A )(sin I cos I (cos MD
North
2
2
C D C D
C D D C
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

A
= A
t
t

37
ft 95.14
180
) 20 80 )( 14 24 (
) 80 cos 20 )(cos 24 cos 14 (cos 400

180
) A A )( I I (
) A A )(cos I cos I (cos MD
East
2
2
C D C D
D C D C
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

A
= A
t
t

( )( )
( )( )
2
180
|
.
|

\
|
t
A
= A
C D C D
D C D C
A A I I
A cos A cos I cos I cos MD
East
38
ft 73 . 377
180
14 24
) 14 sin 400(sin24

180
I I
) I sin I (sin MD
Vert
C D
C D
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

A
= A
t
t

39
At Point D,

X = 1,000 + 95.14 = 1,095.14 ft

Y = 1,000 + 79.83 = 1,079.83 ft

Z = 3,500 + 377.73 = 3,877.73 ft
40
The Tangential Method

80 A 24 I
20 A 14 I
ft 400 MD D, to C from depth Measured
D D
C C
= =
= =
= A
D D
A I MD North cos sin A = A
ft 25 . 28 80 cos 24 sin 400 = =

41
The Tangential Method
ft 22 . 160 80 sin sin24 400
sin sin
= =
A = A

D D
A I MD East
ft 42 . 365 24 cos 400
I cos 400 Vert
D
= =
= A

42
The Tangential Method
ft 3,865.42 365.42 3,500 Z
ft 1,028.25 28.25 1,000 Y

ft 1,160.22 160.22 1,000 X
D, Point At
= + =
= + =
= + =

43
Summary of Results (to the nearest ft)
X Y Z

Average Angle 1,100 1,084 3,878
Balanced Tangential 1,097 1,060 3,877
Minimum Curvature 1,098 1,060 3,881
Radius of Curvature 1,095 1,080 3,878
Tangential Method 1,016 1,028 3,865
44
Torque and Drag
Calculations
45
Friction - Stationary
Horizontal surface
No motion
No applied force
E F
y
= 0

N = W
N
W
N= Normal force = lateral load = contact force = reaction force
46
Sliding Motion
Horizontal surface

Velocity, V > 0
V = constant
Force along surface

N = W
F = N = W
N
W
F
N
47
Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:
1. Consider
a section
of pipe
in the
wellbore.

In the absence of FRICTION the forces acting on
the pipe are buoyed weight, axial tension and the
reaction force, N, normal to the wellbore.
48
Frictionless, Inclined, Straight Wellbore:
pipe. ROTATING for used are equations
(2) : wellbore to 0
(1) : wellbore along 0
ar
These
F
F

=
= I cos W T = A
I sin W N =
49
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):
2. Consider Effect of Friction ( no doglegs):

50
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):
Frictional Force, F = N = W sin I

where 0 < < 1 ( is the coeff. of friction)
usually 0.15 < < 0.4 in the wellbore

(a) Lowering: Friction opposes motion, so

(3)
I sin W I cos W T
F I cos W T
f
= A
= A
51
Effect of Friction (no doglegs):
(b) Raising: Friction still opposes motion,

so
I sin W I cos W T
F I cos W T
f
+ = A
+ = A
(4)
52
Problem 1
What is the maximum hole angle
(inclination angle) that can be logged
without the aid of drillpipe, coiled tubing or
other tubulars?
(assume =0.4)

53
Solution
From Equation (3) above,
(3)

When the logging tool is barely sliding
down the wellbore,
I sin W I cos W T = A
0 T ~ A
I sin W 4 . 0 I cos W 0 =
54
Solution
This is the maximum hole
angle (inclination) that can
be logged without the aid of
tubulars.

Note:

68.2 I
2.5 I or tan 4 . 0 I cot
=
= =
I cot =
55
Problem 2
Consider a well with a long horizontal section.
An 8,000-ft long string of 7 OD csg. is in the
hole. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft.
= 0.3

(a) What force will it take to move this pipe
along the horizontal section of the wellbore?

(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?
56
Problem 2 - Solution - Force
(a) What force will it take to move this pipe
along the horizontal section of the wellbore?
F = ? F = 0
N
W
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lb
F = N = 0.3 * 240,000 lb = 72,000 lb
Force to move pipe, F = 72,000 lbf
57
Problem 2 - Solution - Force
(b) What torque will it take to rotate this pipe?
As an approximation, let us
assume that the pipe lies on
the bottom of the wellbore.

Then, as before,
N = W = 30 lb/ft * 8,000 ft = 240,000 lbf
Torque = F*d/2 = Nd/2 = 0.3 * 240,000 lbf * 7/(2 * 12) ft
Torque to rotate pipe, T = 21,000 ft-lbf
F
T
d/2
58
Problem 2 - Equations -
Horizontal
Torque, T = Wd/(24 ) = 21,000 ft-lbf
F = N
T = F * d
N = W
W
Force to move pipe, F = W = 72,000 lbf
An approximate equation, with W in lbf and d in inches
59
Horizontal - Torque
A more accurate equation for torque in a
horizontal wellbore may be obtained by taking
into consideration the fact that a rotating pipe will
ride up the side of the wellbore to some angle |.

Taking moments about the point P:

Torque, T = W * (d/2) sin | in-lbf
Where | = atan = atan 0.3 = 16.70
o

T = 240,000 * 7/24 * 0.2873 = 20,111 ft-lbf
F
T
d/2 |
P
W
60
Problem 3
A well with a measured depth of 10,000 ft. may be
approximated as being perfectly vertical to the kick-off
point at 2,000 ft. A string of 7 OD csg. is in the hole;
total length is 10,000 ft. The 8,000-ft segment is
inclined at 60 deg. Buoyed weight of pipe = 30 lbs/ft.
= 0.3
61
Problem 3

(a) Hook load when rotating off
bottom
(d) Torque when rotating off bottom

[ ignore effects of dogleg at 2000 ft.]
62
Solution to Problem 3
(a) Hook load when rotating off
bottom:
63
Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating
When rotating off
bottom.
lbf 120,000 lbf 000 , 60
60 cos * ft 8000 *
ft
lb
30 ft 2000 *
ft
lb
30
HL HL HL
5 . 0
8000 2000
+ =
+ =
+ =
+

## lbf 000 , 180 HL=

64
Solution to Problem 3 - lowering
2 (b) Hook load when RIH:
The hook load is decreased by friction in the
wellbore.

In the vertical portion,

Thus,
0 F
0 o sin * 2000 * 30 N
2000
o
=
= =
N F
f
=
0
o

65
Solution to Problem 3 - lowering
In the inclined section,

N = 30 * 8,000 * sin 60
= 207,846 lbf
66
Solution to Problem 3 - Lowering
HL = W
e,2000
+ W
e,8000
- F
2000
- F
8000
= 60,000

+ 120,000

- 0

- 62,354

Thus, F
8000
= N
= 0.3 * 207,846 = 62,352 lbf

HL = 117,646 lbf while RIH

67
Solution to Problem 3 - Raising
HL = W
e,2000
+ W
e,8000
+ F
2000
+ F
8000
= 60,000

+ 120,000

+ 0

+ 62,354

HL = 242,354 lbf POH

68
Solution to Problem 3 - Summary
2,000
10,000
MD
ft
60,000 120,000 180,000
240,000
RIH
ROT
POH
0
0
Axial Tension
HL
69
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
2(d) Torque when rotating off
bottom:
In the Inclined Section:
N F
I sin W N
=
=
2
d
* F
Arm * Force
Torque
f
=
=
70
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
(i) As a first approximation, assume the
pipe lies at lowest point of hole:
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
12
1
*
2
7
* 60 sin * 8000 * 30 * 3 . 0
2
d
I sin W
2
d
N
2
d
F Torque
f

lbf - ft 187 , 18 Torque =
71
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
(ii) More accurate evaluation:
Note that, in the above figure, forces are not
balanced; there is no force to balance the friction
force F
f
.
The pipe will tend
to climb up the
side of the
wellboreas it
rotates
72
Solution to Problem 3 - Rotating
Assume Equilibrium
at angle | as shown.
| = =

sin I sin W F F
f Tangent Along
0
| = =

cos I sin W N F
Tangent to . Perpend
0
(7)
| = sin I sin W N
(6)
| = cos I sin W N
73
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
Solving equations (6) & (7)

(8)

) ( tan
tan
cos I sin W
sin I sin W
N
N

1
|
|
|
|

=
=
=
74
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
(ii) Continued
Evaluating the problem at hand:

From Eq. (8),

Taking moments about the center of the
pipe:

2
d
* F T
f
=

70 . 16
) 3 . 0 ( tan ) ( tan
1 1
=
= =

|
|
75
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
Evaluating the problem at hand:

From Eq. (6),
lbf 724 . 59 F
70 . 16 sin * sin60 * 8000 * 30
sin I sin W F
f
f
=
=
=

|
,
76
Solution to Problem 3 - rotating
Evaluating the problem at hand:

From Eq. (9),

lbf - ft 420 , 17 Torque
12
1
*
2
7
* 59,724
2
d
* F T
f
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
77
Solution to Problem 3
2 (d) (ii) Alternate Solution:
78
Solution to Problem 3
point,
24
7
* 70 . 16 sin * sin60 * 8000 * 30
2
d
sin I sin W T

=
O =
lbf - ft 420 , 17 T =
79
Solution to Problem 3
Note that the answers in parts (i) & (ii)
differ by a factor of cos |

(i) T = 18,187
(ii) T = 17,420

cos | = cos 16.70 = 0.9578