You are on page 1of 33

PETROLEUM SYSTEM AN OVERVIEW

Saloma Yomdo, Oil India Limited

AGENDA

WHAT IS OIL ?
CRUDE OIL, OR PETROLEUM, IS AN ORGANIC SUBSTANCE DERIVED FROM THE REMAINS OF PREHISTORIC PLANT AND ANIMAL MATTER. IT IS A MIXTURE OF HYDROCARBONS, I.E. MOLECULES CONTAINING HYDROGEN AND CARBON, WHICH EXIST SOMETIMES IN LIQUID FORM (CRUDE OIL) AND SOMETIMES AS A VAPOUR (NATURAL GAS).

Fish Fossil

Plant fossil

SOME PEOPLE THINK THAT OIL IS IN BIG POOLS UNDERGROUND.

ACTUALLY, MOST OIL IS TRAPPED IN THE TINY PORE SPACES BETWEEN GRAINS OF ROCK OR SAND. MOST OF THESE PORES ARE TOO SMALL TO BE SEEN WITH THE NAKED EYE.

ORIGIN OF OIL
OIL IS FORMED FROM ORGANIC MATTER (REMAINS OF TINY PLANTS AND ORGANISMS).

ORGANISIMS MUST ACCUMULATED, BURIED AND PRESERVED BY FINE SEDIMENTS


PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE AND BACTERIAL ACTION CONVERT THEM TO HYDROCARBON ANAEROBIC BACTERIA REMOVE OXYGEN, NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND SULFUR AND CONVERT THEM TO PETROLEUM IN FAVOURABLE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CONDITIONS

ORIGIN OF OIL
Inorganic Theory : According to the inorganic theory, hydrogen and carbon reacted together under immense pressure and temperature far below the earth surface and formed Oil and Gas. These hydrocarbon then migrated through porous rocks to collect in various subsurface traps.

Organic Theory :
The more widely accepted organic theory states that the hydrocarbons were generated from organic matter (land and sea plants and animals) under the influence of pressure and temperature over geologic time.

Organic Theory

CLEAN SANDSTONE

Clean Sandstone

Well rounded grains Effective porosity Permeability Clean Sandstone

SYSTEM PetroleumPETROLEUM System Elements

Gas Cap Oil

Accumulation Entrapment

Water

Seal Rock Reservoir r Rock

Migration
120 F

Generation

350 F Source Rock


24803

MIGRATION OF HYDROCARBON
o DUE TO OVERBURDEN PRESSURE OIL IS SQUEEZED OUT OF THE SOURCE ROCK AND MOVES /MIGRATES TO THE RESERVOIR ROCK. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED MIGRATION.

Trap
Primary Migration GAS

OIL

Secondary Migration

PRIMARY MIGRATION - SOURCE ROCKS TO RESERVOIR SECONDARY AND TERTIARY MIGRATION - WITHIN RESERVOIR

Petroleum Traps

Surface Trap

Sub - Surface Trap

How Do We Find Oil?


Oil reservoirs are located by mapping the subsurface geology by seismic acquisition To do this, dynamites are detonated on the surface, and the resulting signals are processed The processed data is then analyzed and interpreted to produce subsurface maps, on which prospects can be located.

Reaching The Oil


Oil wells are drilled by dedicated drilling rigs that work 24x7 to reach their target depth. Wells are drilled through narrow holes (varying from 30 to 6 in diameter) Drilling involves a lot of risks as it is very difficult to predict what layer of rock we might encounter, what pressures and temperatures might be present. Once drilling is over, a production setup is installed at the wellhead.

Producing the Oil


Oil wells are produced via a production setup, called a Christmas tree. It is an assembly of valves and helps to distribute the flow of oil into the surface pipelines. When the production declines, artificial lifting mechanisms are installed, like Gas Lift, Sucker Rods, or submersible pumps.

Associated Gas (Solution Gas ) Reservoir


+

OIL

Gas

(Associated gas)

Evolution of Solution Gas

Gas OIL
Water

Gas

OIL
Water

Associated Gas (Gas Cap Gas ) Reservoir

+ OIL Gas

Gas

solution gas

Gas-cap-gas Expansion of the Gas-Cap-Gas

Gas OIL Water

Gas OIL Water

Non-Associated Gas Reservoir

Gas
(Non-Associated gas)

Gas Water

Gas

Water

OIL PRODUCTION

Source: US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

WELLS DRILLED INTO A RESERVOIR CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCED

SURFACE SEPARATION OF CRUDE OIL INTO OIL, GAS AND WATER ON PRODUCTION PLATFORMS

STORAGE OF CRUDE OIL IN TANK FARMS

RESERVOIR LIFE PROCESS


EXPLORATION ABANDONMENT DISCOVERY

TERTIARY

DELINEATION

SECONDARY PRIMARY

DEVELOPMENT

IOR Processes
Production enhancement Optimizing artificial lift Increasing well stimulation Re-activating idle wells De-bottlenecking facilities Drilling / well intervention methods Infill/step-out drilling Re-completion Workover Deepening Secondary recovery Water flooding Gas flooding (immiscible) Enhanced oil recovery Gas flooding CO2 Condensate flooding Microbial (MEOR) Surfactant (chemical) Polymer Thermal

Field Size Distribution (FSD)


FSD in a basin
Very small fields Small fields Medium-size fields Large fields

Shows
-

Lognormal distribution
Few Many Handful Very few

FSD typically shifts towards smaller sizes as exploration matures Exploration and development opportunities diminish over time in a mature basin

Peak Oil not just jargon


According to the theory of peak oil, worldwide reserves of petroleum have reached their maximum. New discoveries will not push reserve replenishment figures to where it was in the past Further discoveries of oilfields will only help stem the decline in reserves Going by the trend of exploration and production the world over, the theory of peak oil has been proved beyond doubt.

Reservoir Management Critical


Decreasing discovery trend Insufficient production Increasing consumption Increasing exploration costs Thrust to maximize recovery from established reserves

The Concept of Reservoir Management


Production engineering

Geology and geophysics


Design and construction engineering

Reservoir engineering
Gas and chemical engineering Environmental and legal aspects Economics and management

RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

Drilling

Production operations

Research and service labs

Influence of Primary Producing Mechanisms on Reservoir Pressure and Recovery Efficiency


Liquid and Rock Expansion

Reservoir Pressure, % Original Pressure

100

Solution Gas Drive Gas Cap Expansion


80

Water Influx Gravity Drainage

60

40

20

Through proper reservoir management, it is aimed to keep the graph following this pattern, in order to maximize recovery
10 20 30 40 50 60

Recovery Efficiency, % OOIP

INTEGRATION AND TEAMWORK


PEOPLE
MANAGEMENT

DATA

TOOLS
SEISMIC INTERPRETATION DATA ACQUISITION

TECHNOLOGY
SEISMIC GEOLOGIC GEOSTATISTICS ENGINEERING DRILLING COMPLETIONS EOR HSE

GEOLOGICAL

ENGINEERS GEOPHYSICAL LAND/LEGAL RESERVOIR FIELD

LOGGING CORING FACILITIES

ENGINEERING
FINANCIAL

SIMULATORS EOR

FINANCIAL

PRESSURE TRANSIENT

Team Integration (G&G and Reservoir Engg.)


Flat spot recognised on seismic, implying presence of gas. Secondary gas saturation from gas injection observed in simulation model. Model validated and loop closed.

Moran Field

New Approaches (3D Static and Dynamic Modelling)


3D geocellular modelling captures the complex sand-body geometries

Virtual realization of the Geological model


KALPALOK VIRTUAL REALIZATION CENTRE OIL INDIA LIMITED, DULIAJAN

RESERVOIR SIMULATION
Helps to view the effects of production and injection plans on the reservoir in the past, as well as helps us forecast future production trends In simulation, the entire reservoir is converted into a cyber grid, and using processed seismic, geological and petrophysical data, the model is made to resemble the reservoir as best as possible.

Indian Petroleum Basins : An Overview


Sedimentary Basins
Category-I: Proved petroliferous basins with commercial production Category-II: Basins with known occurrence of hydrocarbons but from which no commercial production has been yet obtained

Category-III: Basins with no significant hydrocarbon shows but assumed prospective on geological considerations
Category-IV: Frontier basins with uncertain prospects. Deemed prospective on analogy with similar basins worldwide Category-V Offshore basins Deep Waters

We usually find oil in new places with old ideas. Sometimes, we also find oil in an old place with a new idea, - but seldom we find much oil in an old place with an old idea. Several times in the past, we have thought that we were running out of oil, whereas we were actually running out of ideas. Parke Atherton Dickey

THANK YOU