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Martin Dempster

Review

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) examines the difference between 2 or more groups in terms of their scores on a single dependent variable It does this by looking at the ratio of the differences between the groups against the differences within the groups This may be a very simplistic representation of reality

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

ANOVA

Drugs

CBT No treatment

Anxiety Assessment

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

Objectives

Introduce the MANOVA model the ANOVA with additional dependent variable(s) Introduce the ANCOVA model - the ANOVA with covariate(s) Introduce the MANCOVA model the ANOVA with additional dependent variable(s) and covariate(s)

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 4

ANOVA vs MANOVA

In all cases ANOVAs have only 1 dependent variable (they are univariate tests) When you have more than 1 related dependent variables you need to conduct a MANOVA MANOVA can be one-way, twoway, between-groups, repeated measures and mixed

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 6

Example

A researcher wished to compare those who had registered as an organ donor with those who had not. He wanted to compare them on: attitudes to organ donation, feelings about organ donation, and previous exposure to issue. These 3 dependent variables are conceptually related

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 7

Appropriate Analysis

We could take each of the dependent variables separately and conduct a one-way between-groups ANOVA (or independent t-test) This means conducting 3 tests (one for each DV) However, every time we conduct a test we take a risk of an incorrect conclusion

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 8

Solution

Conduct 1 significance test which assesses the differences between the groups on all DVs This is a multivariate test Returning to our example

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

Example

A researcher wished to compare those who had registered as an organ donor with those who had not. He wanted to compare them on: attitudes to organ donation, feelings about organ donation, and previous exposure to issue. These 3 dependent variables are conceptually related

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 10

b Multiv ariate Tests

Effect Intercept

DONOR

Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root Pillai's Trace Wilks' Lambda Hotelling's Trace Roy's Largest Root

F Hypothesis df 1790.688 a 3.000 1790.688 a 3.000 1790.688 a 3.000 1790.688 a 3.000 4.255 a 3.000 4.255 a 3.000 4.255 a 3.000 4.255 a 3.000

Interpretation

The MANOVA result indicates that there is a significant difference between those on the organ donor register and those not on the register, in terms of their scores on at least one of the DVs Which one of the DVs? All of the DVs? Univariate tests

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 12

Univariate Tests

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Source Corrected Model Type III Sum Dependent Variable of Squares exposure to 903.925 donation issues attitude towards 12372.705 organ donation feelings towards 922.187 organ donation exposure to 903.925 donation issues attitude towards 12372.705 organ donation feelings towards 922.187 organ donation exposure to 88498.590 donation issues attitude towards 1171563.820 organ donation feelings towards 31153.824 organ donation df 1 1 1 1 1 1 375 375 375 Mean Square 903.925 12372.705 922.187 903.925 12372.705 922.187 235.996 3124.170 83.077 F 3.830 3.960 11.100 3.830 3.960 11.100 Sig. .051 .047 .001 .051 .047 .001

DONOR

Error

Interpretation

There is a significant difference between those on the organ donor register and those not on the register, in terms of their scores on attitude towards organ donation and feelings towards organ donation. However, feelings towards organ donation has the strongest influence on registering as an organ donor. What is the nature of the influence?

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

14

Plot

Estimated Marginal Means of feelings towards

31.5 31.0 30.5 30.0 29.5 29.0 28.5 28.0 27.5 yes no

If there are more than 2 levels of the IV, then post hoc tests will be required to examine the nature of the findings Proceed from this point as for a univariate ANOVA

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

16

Assumptions of MANOVA

Independent variable is categorical. Dependent variables should be measured at the interval / ratio level. There should be more cases in each cell than there are DVs Multivariate distribution is approximately normal. Linearity Distributions have approximately equal variances Homogeneity of intercorrelations.

Covariates

A covariate is a (continuous) variable that is not part of the main experimental manipulation but has an effect on the dependent variable Including covariates enables us to: Explain more within-group variance, thereby increasing the power of our test Remove the bias of a confounding variable

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

19

ANOVA

Drugs

CBT No treatment

Anxiety Assessment

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

20

ANCOVA

Non-CBT

CBT No treatment

Anxiety Assessment

Depression

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

21

ANOVA Result

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: anxiety Type III Sum Source of Squares Corrected Model 2.133 a Intercept 459.267 group 2.133 Error 15.600 Total 477.000 Corrected Total 17.733 df 2 1 2 12 15 14 Mean Square 1.067 459.267 1.067 1.300 F .821 353.282 .821 Sig. .463 .000 .463

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

22

ANCOVA Result

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: anxiety Type III Sum Source of Squares Corrected Model 13.320a Intercept 14.264 depress 11.187 group 3.464 Error 4.413 Total 477.000 Corrected Total 17.733 df 3 1 1 2 11 15 14 Mean Square 4.440 14.264 11.187 1.732 .401 F 11.068 35.556 27.886 4.318 Sig. .001 .000 .000 .041

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

23

What Next?

Post hoc tests or planned comparisons to pinpoint differences Graph can be useful

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

24

6.25

6.00

5.75

5.50

5.25

group

When random allocation to groups does not take place, it is possible that the groups are unequal These differences at the pretest period can confound the results at the post-test period Solution: treat the pretest scores as a covariate, thereby removing the effects of differences at baseline

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 26

Additional assumption of ANCOVA Means that the relationship between the covariate and the dependent variable is approx the same for all groups In other words, there should be no interaction between the groups and the covariate

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 27

Checking Assumption

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: anxiety Type III Sum Source of Squares Corrected Model 14.142a Intercept 15.887 group * depress 14.142 Error 3.591 Total 477.000 Corrected Total 17.733 df 3 1 3 11 15 14 Mean Square 4.714 15.887 4.714 .326 F 14.440 48.665 14.440 Sig. .000 .000 .000

Postgrad Methods

Martin Dempster

28

MANCOVA

Combination of previous 2 analyses Allows us to examine differences on more than one DV, while controlling for covariate(s) Interpretation combines information from before multivariate test result is the result after removal of the covariate No further assumptions

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 29

Summary

ANOVA is unlikely to be useful for real life studies If covariates cannot be physically controlled, they should be measured and subsequently controlled statistically When several DVs are being measured, a MANOVA or MANCOVA procedure will be required

Postgrad Methods Martin Dempster 30

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