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Transport Phenomena: Basic Concept

Introduction
In the life process, especially in those of more highly developed organisms, the circulation of various fluids and mass is of prominent importance. Circulations of various fluids and mass Transport Process

Transport Phenomena: Definition


a transport phenomenon is any of various mechanisms by which particles or quantities move from one place to another There are three main categories of transport phenomena:
a. Heat (energy) transfer, b. Mass transfer, and c. Fluid dynamics (or momentum transfer)

Common example of transport phenomena


conduction
random motion of molecules that arises from thermal energy transferred by molecular collisions

convection
mechanism of transport resulting from the bulk motion of fluid

radiation
mechanism of transport without medium

Transport Phenomena: In Life


Fertilizer move from deep soil to leaf Blood circulation and respiration Absorbing nutrient by intestinal Absorbing medicine by Gastrointestinal Drug delivery process Water from highland propagate to lower land Worker move from bogor to jakarta

The spreading and dissipation of odors in air is an example of mass diffusion

The conduction of heat in a solid material is an example of heat diffusion.


The drag (physics) experienced by a rain drop as it falls in the atmosphere is an example of momentum diffusion (the rain drop loses momentum to the surrounding air through viscous stresses and decelerates). In solid state physics, the motion and interaction of electrons, holes and phonons are studied under "transport phenomena"

Basic Concept: Fluid


Velocity of fluid below a value of approximately 50 cm/s. critical value So flow of gasses can discuss together with flow of liquid. incompressible flow The flow of fluids is characterized by the fluid volume flowing through the tube cross-section in unit time V

I: volume current strength or Intensity of the current

V volume of fluid flowing through the tube cross-section in time t

Ideal fluid frictionless, this mean that the flow velocity is the same at every point of the tube If fluid volume elements: V = q.S flows through a tube of length S and cross-section q during time t, from, the currnet intensity can be rewrited:

S Iq qv t

Real fluid friction full, so the velocity differs at individual points of a given cross-section. It is custom to work with the mean velocity belonging to the given cross section

I v q
If the characteristics quantities of the current (velocity, current intensity, pressure) are time independent, and most vary from place to place, this is called stationary

Bernoullis Law
Pressure distribution of ideal fluids undergoing stationary flow through tubes of different cross-section

1 2 p v constant 2
the dynamic pressure the static pressure

If the tube is not horizontal, the change in the potential energy due to gravity must also be considered. We have:

1 2 p v gh constant 2
What it is tell us ??

Internal Friction: Stokes Law


If a body moves in a liquid medium a force due to friction is exerted on the body, referred as external friction While the displacement of the layers of the medium with respect each other give rise to internal friction Internal friction is characterized by the internal friction coefficient viscosity

Internal friction force is proportional to the relative velocity (v) of the body : Ff ~ n The friction force depend upon: the body and the nature of medium. In the case of sphere (bola), form factor rradius sphere, the nature of the medium expressed by 6p. Consequently: Ff = 6prv; (Stokes Law)

The factor is the internal friction coefficient or simply viscosity. Unit : Pa.s The viscosity of an easily flowing fluid is small, whereas viscous fluids have high viscosities.

In the case of motion at constant velocity, the driving force Fd is proportional to the velocity. v = Fd Coefficient = mobility The value of gives the mean velocity of colloidal particle or macromolecule moved in some medium by unit driving force

1 6p r

Poiseuille Law
In the case of smooth flow (laminar flow), the volume flow rate is given by the pressure difference divided by the viscous resistance.

Resistance to flow

Poiseuille law agree with experiment for uniform fluid (newtonian fluid). This mean there is no turbulence

Poiseuille not appropriate if the velocity fluid is high so there will make turbulent
There is no simple mathematical form for turbulence

The beginning of turbulence when the Reynolds number higher than 2000

Re

2v r

r = radius of pipe = density of fluid = viscosity

Effect of radius changes


The biggest surprise in the application of Poiseuille's law to fluid flow is the dramatic effect of changing the radius

Blood Flow

Occlusion
Occlusion mean: a term indicating that the state of something, which is normally open, is now totally closed. In medicine, the term is often used to refer to blood vessels, arteries or veins which have become totally blocked to any blood flow

Emergency blood flow rate


Suppose you have an emergency requirement for a five-fold increase in blood volume flow rate (like being chased by a big dog)? How does your body supply it?

Not realize to double pressure till 600 mmHg But the body has a much more potent method for increasing volume flow rate in the vasodilation of the small vessels called arterioles

Turbulent flow in Aorta


Turbulent Re Number > 2000 Blood flow in the human body is remarkably free of turbulence , but sounds attributed to turbulence are sometimes detected by stethescope associated with the aorta.

Assuming a nominal blood volume flowrate of 5 liters/min and a radius of 0.9 cm for the aorta

But when the velocity profile for tube flow is taken into account, it is found that the maximum velocity of flow is twice the effective value, so a velocity of 66 cm/s would be expected to produce turbulence in the center of the aorta.