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Harmonics

Prepared By :
Sayed Salah Sayed Under Help Of : The Group Of drive project

Harmonics - What are they ?

Harmonics is a term used to describe the shape or characteristic of a voltage or current waveform with respect to the fundamental frequency in an electrical distribution system

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Figure 1 : Fundamental Sine Wave Figure 2 : 5th Harmonic with Frequency = 5 times fundamental frequency

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Figure 3 : Combination of the above two waveforms results in a distorted sine wave

Which came first?

In this casethe Egg!

Current distortion causes Voltage distortion Voltage distortion is created by pulling distorted current through an impedance Amount of voltage distortion depends on:
System impedance Amount of distorted current pulled through the impedance If either increases, VTHD will increase

Expected Harmonics

Source Typical Harmonics*


6 Pulse Drive/Rectifier 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 12 Pulse Drive/Rectifier 11, 13, 23, 25 18 Pulse Drive 17, 19, 35, 37 Switch-Mode Power Supply 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 Fluorescent Lights 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 * Generally, magnitude decreases as harmonic order increases

Harmonic Spectrum

Todays AC VSDs are Pulse Width Modulated


AC Line

Motor Input rectifier

Inverter
Filter

Input rectifier converts AC line voltage to fixed voltage DC. Most Drives use 6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifiers DC voltage is filtered to reduce ripple caused by rectification. 6-Pulse generate 5,7,11,13,17,19,23,25 etc.. . harmonics Inverter changes fixed voltage DC to adjustable AC voltage and frequency which is fed to the motor.

To limit level of distortion of current drawn by equipment connected to AC Power lines

Current only flows when AC supply voltage is greater than capacitor voltage. Current is distorted with high harmonic content.
AC Supply To Load

Power Supply input circuit

Problems : Reduced Power Factor - Heats cables which must be over-sized Distorted Voltage - Reduced efficiency of motors E.M. Interference Neutral Burn Out in 3 Phase 4 wire Systems

Fourier Analysis : Any periodic waveform may be split up into sinewaves at the fundamental frequency and multiples of that frequency (Harmonics).

Fourier Analysis

Specific Harmonics Filtering


Problems due to Specific HarmonicsOverheating of transformers and rotating equipment Neutral overloading/unacceptable neutral-to-ground voltages Distorted voltage and current wave forms Failed capacitor banks Increased Hysteresis losses Fuses and Breaker tripping Wasted energy/High electric bill Erroneous resister of electric meters Unreliable operation of electronic equipment and generators Wasted capacity-inefficient distribution of power Increased maintenance of equipment and machinery

Power Factor Improvement


Problems due to Power FactorWithout PFCC

Increased line losses- I2R Wasted generation capacity Wasted distribution/transformer capacity Wasted system capacity Reduced system efficiency Increased maximum demand and related charges Possible power factor charges Increased maintenance of equipment and machinery Wasted energy/High electric bill Wasted investment and operating capital
With PFCC

Voltage Distortion Limits


Harmonic Voltage Distortion Limits

Problems due to HarmonicsOverheating of transformers and rotating equipment Increased Hysteresis losses Neutral overloading/unacceptable neutral-to-ground voltages Distorted voltage and current wave forms Failed capacitor banks Fuses and Breaker tripping Unreliable operation of electronic equipment and generators Erroneous resister of electric meters Wasted energy/High electric bill
HARMO NICS

F unda m e nta l h3 h5 h7 S um

Amplitude

Time

Problems Harmonics Could Cause


Elevated RMS current Circuit Breaker Trips Nuisance Fuse Blowing Reduced Equipment Life
Transformers, Conductors, Breakers, Switches

Equipment Malfunctions High Frequency Currents Reduces Effective Power Factor

More about Harmonics


Even harmonics (2nd, 4th ) are in phase with the fundamental, cancel each other and are not a concern to most installations although even harmonics do add to the a minor amount to total line currents. Odd harmonics (3rd, 5th ) are out of phase with the fundamental, add to fundamental current and are a major concern to most installations and do add a significant amount to the total line currents. Odd harmonics contribute greatly to the non-sinusoidal current waveform with non-linear loads such as AC drives.

What are Harmonics ?


Harmonic - A sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is a integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. Characteristic Harmonics - Those harmonics produced by semiconductor converter equipment in the course of normal operation. In a six pulse converter, the characteristic harmonics are the non-triple odd harmonics, for example, the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc.

IEEE 519-1992 Definitions

How are harmonics generated ?

In discontinuous conduction situations non-linear loads contribute an infinite number of odd and even harmonic currents. Harmonic currents are multiples of the fundamental frequency (60Hz) that are greater than the fundamental frequency.

VFD Input Current Without Filter

Harmonics
Prepared By : Alaa Hussien Mahmoud Under Help Of : The Group Of drive project

Harmonics
Prepared By : Mohamed Ali Abd EL Gawad Under Help Of : The Group Of drive project

Harmonics
Prepared By :
Mohamed Ragab Hamada

Under Help Of : The Group Of drive project