You are on page 1of 21

Exercise 2

Fertilization and
Maturation Stage
Oogonium (2N)
Growth /
Maturation
Meiosis I
Primary Oocyte (2N)
Arrest at metaphase I
until stimulated by hormone
ovulation

Meiosis II
First polar
Secondary Oocyte (N) body
Arrest at metaphase II

No Fertilization Fertilization

degeneration MII continues

Differentiation Second polar


Ootid (N) bodies

Ovum (N)
Slides to be studied:
Ascaris uterus
Ascaris
Parasitic nematode
Ascaris eggs –
transparent – possible
to study steps in
maturation, fertilization
and cleavage
Sperm cells enter the
eggs in the genital
tract even before
Meiosis I
2N = 4
Unfertilized eggs
Vacuolated
cytoplasm
inconspicuous
nuclei
thin cell
membranes
Primary oocyte
note: staining in the picture is
different from the staining of
the slides in the lab
no pronuclei, no sperm head,
just vacuolated cell
Stages of Maturation
Sperm Penetration Stage
Pronuclear Stage
Fusion Stage
Early Cleavage
1. Sperm Penetration Stage
Stage of Development: Primary oocyte
Presence of Bivalents
Heads of spermatozoa – small, dense
triangular bodies
After fertilization: forms fertilization
membrane and outer shell (chitinous
shell)
Chitinous shell

Fertilization Membrane

Perivitelline space
Cell membrane

bivalents
Germinal Vesicle
or Female nucleus
Sperm head
2. Pronuclear Stage
Female Pronucleus – lightly stained/
transparent
Male pronucleus – darkly stained; bigger
Formation of First polar body
Separation of the homologous pairs
First polar body extruded
Stage of development: Secondary
oocyte
Formation of Second polar bodies
Separation of sister chromatids
2nd polar body extruded ( 2 polar bodies will
be seen; the outer one is the first and the
inner one is the second polar body)
Stage of development: Ootid
Chitinous shell

Fertilization Membrane

Perivitelline space
Cell membrane

First Polar Body


Female Pronucleus
Male Pronucleus

Stage of development:
Secondary oocyte
First Polar Body
Chitinous shell

Fertilization Membrane

Perivitelline space
Cell membrane

Second Polar Body


Female Pronucleus
Male Pronucleus
Stage of development: ootid
3. Fusion Stage
Fusion of the male and female
pronuclei. (observe closely; it must be flat in the middle; there
are cases when the male and female pronuclei seem to be fused but
are actually just overlapping)

Presence of 2 polar bodies (inner- 2nd,


outer- 1st) or 1 polar body (2nd polat
body near the outer covering; 1st polar
body already extruded from the shell)
Perivitelline space – space between the
egg and the fertilization membrane
Stage of development: Ovum
First Polar Body
Chitinous shell

Fertilization Membrane

Perivitelline space
Cell membrane

Second Polar Body


Fused Male and
Female Pronuclei

Note: Discernment is needed to be able to distinguish the 1st and 2nd polar bodies. It is always the first polar
body that is first extruded. The speed of the extrusion of polar bodies from the egg cell may vary, so in the fusion
and early cleavage stage there may be 2, 1 or no polar body that can be observed.
Early Cleavage Stage
Zygote
Diploid
Entire cell dividing (contrast
telophase to fusion stage)
Observe the phases of mitosis
(prophase, metaphase, anaphase,
telophase)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase