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EE462L, Spring 2013 PV Arrays (Solar Panels)

Electrical Properties of a Solar Cell


Photons

Junction

n-type p-type I

V +

External circuit (e.g., battery, lights)

Diode current
5 Diode Amps 0

BV A eBV )) A ((e 1 1

Isc

A(e BV 1)

V +

External circuit (e.g., battery, lights)

I = I sc A(e

BV

1)

0.0

Diode Volts

0.6

I-V Curve

I Isc Im

, where A, B, and especially Isc vary with solar insolation Increasing solar insolation Maximum power point

0 0 Vm Voc

36 Cells in Series Make a 12V-Class Panel (Voc 19V)

9 cells x 4 cells is a common configuration

Two 12V-Class Panels in Series Make a 24V-Class Array (Voc 38V)

I-V Curve
Isc I (V ) = 5.34 0.00524 e 0.1777V 1

)
Pmax at approx. 30V Pmax 0.7 Voc Isc

Isc

Voc
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The Maximum Power Point

Pmax

P=0 at short circuit

P=0 at open circuit

On a good solar day in Austin, you get about 1kWh per square meter of solar panels (corresponds to about 150W rated)
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Earths Poles
Magnetic poles: Created by Earths magnetic field Can be located with a compass They move along Earths surface!

Celestial poles: Created by Earths rotation.

Geological Survey of Canada

They are two imaginary stationary points in the sky. Important for PV system applications.

Where is the Sun?


Up (z axis)

Line perpendicular to horizontal plane Horizontal plane East (y axis) West

North (x axis)

Note because of magnetic declination, a compass in Austin points approximately 6 east of north.

Figure 4. Sun Zenith and Azimuth Angles

Series of equations to get zenith and azimuth angles see pp. 5-7 in lab doc.
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Solar Noon

Sun Moves Throughout the Year

June 21

December 21

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Sun Moves from Summer to Winter

Jun Sep Dec

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Sun Moves From Winter to Summer

Jun Mar

Dec

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Panel Orientation is Important


Austins Latitude: 30o 30o Edge of PV module June 21

Tropic of Cancer Latitude 23.45o

23.45o 23.45o

March 21 September 21

Equator

Tropic of Capricorn Latitude -23.45o

December 21 Earths surface

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Panel Orientation is Important

Line perpendicular to horizontal plane Line perpendicular to panel surface Edge of panel Horizontal plane Figure 6. Panel Tilt Angle

Best all-year tilt = Latitude Best winter tilt = Latitude + 15 Best summer tilt = Latitude 15
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Solar Radiation Monitors

Rotating Shadowband Pyranometers Measure GH and DH


GH (Global Horizontal W/m2): Sensor points straight up, sees entire sky, including sun disk DH (Diffuse Horizontal W/m2): Once per minute, band quickly swings over, shadow falls on sensor. Then, sensor sees entire sky, less sun disk.

NREL Sci Tec Two-Axis Tracker Measures DN, GH, and DH


DN (Direct Normal W/m2): Tracking device points toward sun and sees only the sun disk

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Keep Solar Radiation Monitor Lenses Clean!

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Computing Incident Power


GH: Measured sky on horizontal sensor (includes disk of sun)

Direct normal (DN), global horizontal (GH), and diffuse horizontal (DH), all in W/m2, are the three important components of solar radiation. DN can be (GH DH): Est. disk of sun estimated from GH and DH.

DN est = DH +

(GH DH )

zenith cos( sun )

component on horizontal sensor

DH: Measured sky on shadowed horizontal sensor (excludes disk of sun) DN: Est. total sky on sensor pointed toward sun

Est. disk of sun component on sensor pointed toward sun

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Computing Incident Power, cont.


The angle of incidence is the angle between the suns rays and a vector normal to the panel surface (0 means that the suns rays are perpendicular to the panel surface)

incident
Series of equations to get angle of incidence see pp. 11-12 in lab doc.

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Computing Incident Power, cont.


The incident solar radiation, in kW, on a panel surface is approximated by
Measured sky on shadowed horizontal sensor (excludes disk of sun) Est. disk of sun component on sensor pointed toward sun
About 14% is converted to electricity

(GH DH ) Pincident = DH + cos( incident ) A panel zenith cos( sun )


Est. disk of sun component on panel surface

Est. Watts on panel surface

Multiply by surface area

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Panels Atop ENS


85W each
Area of each panel is 0.52m2 Area of each panel is 0.60m2 Station 16 Solarex Station 16 Solarex Station 15 Solarex Station 15 Solarex Area of this Area of each Station 19 2 2 panel is 0.54m panel is 1.04m BP Station 21 Photowatt Station 21 Photowatt Station 20 BP Station 19 BP Station 18 BP Station 17 BP Station 17 BP Station 18 BP

Disconnected

150W

80W each

All panels atop ENS have azimuth angle = 190o

85W each

View Facing Front of ENS Panels (i.e., looking toward north) (Note areas shown are for individual panels, so for a pair, double the values shown)

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Weather Forecast
http://www.nws.noaa.gov/forecasts/graphical/sectors/southplains.php#tabs

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Panel Pairs Connected to Power Lab

Voltage at Panels

Voltage at Lab Bench

Panel Current

Use these two

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Use a Variable Power Resistor to Sweep the Panel I-V Curve

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Record, Plot, and Visually Inspect the I-V Data Points as You Take Them Take the open circuit voltage reading with no load connected Adjust the power resistor, backing down in integer volts in two volt steps (e.g. 38V, 36V, 34V, ) until about 25V, while taking the current readings

Reminder - Hand plot as you take your data points

At about 25V, continue to back down in integer volts, but in five volt steps, while taking the current readings Take the short circuit current and panel voltage reading
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Use the Excel Solver to Curve Fit Your Measurements


PV Station Isc= 5.340E+00 A= 5.241E-03 B= 1.777E-01 (I error)^2 Ppanel = VI P equation 0.00033 0.0 -0.7 0.003654 92.8 94.9 0.00148 129.0 127.8 0.002558 123.8 122.5 0.000138 103.0 103.2 0.001178 21.2 21.3 0.009338 I = Isc A(exp(BVpanel) 1) di/dv R(v) equation equation -9.31E-04 1073.6 -9.31E-04 1073.6 -9.31E-04 1073.6 -9.31E-04 1073.6 -9.31E-04 1073.6 -9.31E-04 1073.6

Vpanel 39 35 30 25 20 4

Vload

I 0 2.65 4.3 4.95 5.15 5.3

I equation -1.818E-02 2.710E+00 4.262E+00 4.899E+00 5.162E+00 5.334E+00

PV Station, Bright Sun


6 5 4

3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

V(panel) - volts

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14

I - amps

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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 1 Seconds 1.5 2 Voltage Current

Automated way to get I-V curve: Suddenly connect panel to large discharged C (like 5 or 10 of the DBR Cs), Capture I and V data points on a scope, save to a floppy, and read the file with Excel, Replot I versus V, Replot P versus time to get max P
I-V Power
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
0 10 20 30 40

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0.5

1
Seconds

1.5

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Solar Radiation in Texas

AVERAGE DIRECT NORMAL INSOLATION MAP LEGEND COLOR KEY per day (kWh/m2-day) <3.0 3.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 4.0 4.0 - 4.5 4.5 - 5.0 5.0 - 5.5 5.5 - 6.0 6.0 - 6.5 6.5 - 7.0 >7.0 per YEAR (MJ/m2) <3,940 3,940 - 4,600 4,600 - 5,260 5,260 - 5,910 5,910 - 6,570 6,570 - 7,230 7,230 - 7,880 7,880 - 8,540 8,540 - 9,200 >9,200 (quads/100 mi2) <1.0 1.0 - 1.1 1.1 - 1.3 1.3 - 1.5 1.5 - 1.6 1.6 - 1.8 1.8 - 1.9 1.9 - 2.1 2.1 - 2.3 >2.3

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Multiply by panel efficiency, e.g. 0.14, to get electrical output

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clock noon

solar noon
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Solar analysis of Sept. 25, 2006. Assume panels are at 30 tilt, 180 azimuth. Incident kWH on 1m2 panel (approx. 150W rated) is 7.02kWH. Multiplying by 0.14 efficiency yields 0.98 kWH. That corresponds to about 6.6kWH per 1kW rated of solar panels (1000*0.98/150). Thus, if a (non-air conditioned) house consumes 20 kWH per day, then about 3kW of panels are needed. Using $2.5 per W, which inflates to about $7.0 per W with mounting and electronics, then the 3 kW of panels cost about $21K. Consider an average price of electricity for residential users of 11 cents/kWH (TX is about average). So cost of electricity each day is about $2.1. Hence, it will take close to 3 years to pay the solar

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In recent years, financial incentives have acted like catalysts to increase PV power penetration and to bring solar panels costs down

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Other factors affecting PV use effectiveness and return of investment: - Air conditioner impact - PV panel orientation (SW is better during the summer because it tends to maximize generation when air conditioner consumption is maximum)

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Practice Problem
December 16 was a brilliant solar day here in Austin. Consider a PV installation that has 60 tilt, and 225 azimuth (i.e., facing southwest). Use the following equation, ,

and the graphs on the following page to estimate 5a. 5b. the maximum incident solar power density on the panels (in W/m2), and the time at which the maximum occurs.

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Zenith

Incident

GH

DH

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