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Psoriasis

What is Psoriasis?
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease that affects the skin.

There is currently no cure, but various treatments can help to control the symptoms.
It is typically a lifelong condition.

The name psoriasis is from the Greek language, meaning roughly "itching condition" (psora "itch" + -sis "action").

Psoriasis occurs when the immune system mistakes a normal skin cell for a pathogen, and sends out faulty signals that cause overproduction of new skin cells.
Witch means the life cycle of your skin cells greatly accelerates, leading to a buildup of dead cells on the surface of the epidermis.

Types of Psoriasis:
Several types of psoriasis exist. These include:
Plaque psoriasis is the most common type of psoriasis. It usually causes dry, red skin lesions (plaques) covered with silvery scales.

The plaques itch or may be painful and can occur anywhere on your body.

Nail psoriasis. Psoriasis can affect fingernails and toenails, causing pitting, abnormal nail growth and discoloration. Psoriatic nails may become loose and separate from the nail bed (onycholysis).

Scalp psoriasis. Psoriasis on the scalp appears as red, itchy areas with silvery-white scales. You may notice flakes of dead skin especially after scratching your scalp.

Guttate psoriasis. This primarily affects people younger than 30 and is usually triggered by a bacterial infection such as strep throat. It's marked by small, water-drop-shaped sores on your trunk, arms, legs and scalp.

Erythrodermic psoriasis. The least common type of psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis can cover your entire body with a red, peeling rash that can itch or burn intensely.

Cause
The cause of psoriasis is not fully understood. There are two main hypotheses about the process that occurs in the development of the disease.
1. psoriasis as primarily a disorder of excessive growth and reproduction of skin cells. The problem is simply seen as a fault of the epidermis and its keratinocytes. an immune-mediated disorder in which the excessive reproduction of skin cells is secondary to factors produced by the immune system.

2.

Psoriasis triggers
Psoriasis typically starts or worsens because of a trigger that you may be able to identify and avoid. Factors that may trigger psoriasis include:
Infections, such as strep throat or thrush Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, bug bite, or a severe sunburn Stress Cold weather Smoking Heavy alcohol consumption Certain medications including lithium, which is prescribed for bipolar disorder; high blood pressure medications such as beta blockers; antimalarial drugs; and iodides

Complications
Depending on the type and location of the psoriasis and how widespread the disease is, psoriasis can cause complications. These include:
Thickened skin and bacterial skin infections caused by scratching in an attempt to relieve severe itching Fluid and electrolyte imbalance in the case of severe pustular psoriasis Low self-esteem Depression Stress Anxiety Social isolation

Treatment
There are a number of different treatment options for psoriasis. Typically topical agents are used for mild disease, phototherapy for moderate disease, and systemic agents for severe disease. Topical agents
Bath solutions (epsom salt) and moisturizers, mineral oil, and petroleum jelly may help soothe affected skin and reduce the dryness which accompanies the build-up of skin on psoriatic plaques.

Phototherapy
Phototherapy in the form of sunlight has long been used effectively for treatment. Wavelengths of 311313 nm are most effective and special lamps have been developed for this application. The exposure time should be controlled to avoid over exposure and burning of the skin

Systemic agents
Psoriasis that is resistant to topical treatment and phototherapy is treated by medications taken internally by pill or injection (systemic). Patients undergoing systemic treatment are required to have regular blood and liver function tests because of the toxicity of the medication.

patient with psoriasis (and arthritis) before (baseline) and 8 weeks after initiation of infliximab therapy.

Expectations (prognosis)
Psoriasis is typically a lifelong condition. There is currently no cure, but various treatments can help to control the symptoms. Many of the most effective agents used to treat severe psoriasis carry an increased risk of significant morbidity including skin cancers, lymphoma and liver disease.

According to one study, psoriasis is linked to 2.5-fold increased risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer in men and women, with no preponderance of any specific histologic subtype of cancer. This increased risk could also be attributed to antipsoriatic treatment.

History
Some scholars believe psoriasis to have been included among the skin conditions called tzaraat in the Hebrew Bible, defined by chazal as the result of talking lashon hara (slander). The patient deemed "impure" during their afflicted phase and is ultimately treated by the kohen. In more recent times psoriasis was frequently described as a variety of leprosy.[citation needed] The Greeks used the term lepra () for scaly skin conditions. They used the term psora to describe itchy skin conditions. It became known as Willan's lepra in the late 18th century when English dermatologists Robert Willan and Thomas Bateman differentiated it from other skin diseases. Leprosy, they said, is distinguished by the regular, circular form of patches, while psoriasis is always irregular. Willan identified two categories: leprosa graecorum and psora leprosa.