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Compressors

What are compressors ? What is their significance/role in continuous process industries?

Compressors :
Handles compressible fluid like air, gases, vapours etc.

Types of Compressors
COMPRESSORS
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT (COMPRESSING FLUID BY REDUCING VOLUME OF COPRESSION CHAMBER) DYNAMIC TYPE (ACCELERATING AND DECLERATING OF FLUID)

RECIPROCATING

ROTARY TYPE

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

AXIAL COMPRESSORS

HELICAL SCREW

SPIRAL AXIAL

STRAIGHT LOBE

SLIDE VANE

Selection Criterion :
Application range. Reliability criterion.

Operational range requirements.

Application Range
105

Discharge Pressure Psia

104

103

Centrifugal
102

Axial Reciprocating

101

102

103

104

105

106

Inlet Flow Atm.cfm

Characteristic Curve
Head
Centrifugal Axial Positive Displacement

Capacity

Therefore at constant speed


A Centrifugal compressor is essentially a variable capacity, constant pressure ( relatively ) machine. While axial flow & positive displacement compressors are constant capacity variable pressure machines. (This is an important factor in the selection of type of compressor )

Reliability, operating characteristics and a very wide operating range all favors a centrifugal compressor for industrial use in most of the cases.

Centrifugal Compressor

Centrifugal compressor selection


At constant speed :
A positive displacement compressor will always impart to working fluid a predetermined constant reduction in volume. While a centrifugal compressor will always impart a constant change in velocity of the fluid

Cw

Cf
C

Cr

Q = Cf *A H e= 1/g ( u2 Cw2 u1 Cw1 )

For reduced capacity u


Cw
Cf will decrease

Cf
C

&

Cr

Cw will increase

Because of this reason for a centrifugal compressor (with backward curved vane) following head-capacity curve is obtained

Head
Actual

Ideal

Centrifugal compressor

Capacity

Surge
As we have seen in above theory that as flow is reduced, the velocity of the fluid jet leaving the vane is increased and hence head is also increased. Also due to reduction in flow the fluid channel between two vanes is not completely filled up which causes localized flow recirculation. A more decrease in flow results in unstable operation and is called Surging of compressor.

Horizontal split casing

Barrel type casing

Main Parts
Stator :
Casing Upper Half Casing Lower Half ( Or Casing Barrel & counter casing in case of Barrel type compressor ) Diaphragms ( Suction, discharge and intermediate diaphragms )

Main Parts
Stator(contd)
Seal
Seal for individual impeller Seal on balancing drum End gas seal ( labyrinth ) End oil seal or dry gas seal or injection seal

Bearing Housing
Incorporates radial bearing on one side and radial and thrust bearing on another side.

Instruments on bearing housing :


1.For Temperature : Thermocouple on bearing pads for direct measurement of bearing temp 2.Axial position indicating probe 3.Radial vibration probes 4. Speed probe is generally mounted on gas /steam turbine if the compressor is turbo driven, but if compressor is motor driven then a key phasor probe is installed for analysis of vibration readings.

Main Parts
Rotor: As name implies it consists of all rotating parts of the compressor like :
Impellers Shaft Balancing drum Coupling hub Thrust disc

Protective Devices
Emergency Stop Devices. Alarm Devices. Safety Valves. Anti Surge By-pass Valve

Emergency Stop
The conditions causing emergency stop may be following ( only indicative and may vary from case to case )
Low lube oil pressure. Low level in seal oil tank ( if compressor incorporates seal oil system ) Over speed. Low control oil pressure ( for turbo driven ) High differential pressure / high axial thrust High radial vibration In some cases high temperature after inter cooler or after cooler

Alarm Events
All emergency stop conditions will first generate alarm. Temperature ( of bearing, process fluid, lube oil etc. ) Pressure. Suction flow Low / high oil level in reservoir Low level in seal oil tank

Typical Bypass Anti Surge System

Compressor Performance Curve


Pressure

Compressor Surge Line Anti Surge Line

Psurge

P1

Design Point

Quantity Bypassed

req.

surge

Q1

Flow

Typical Compressor Performance Map And Surge Control

Thrust Balancing

Types of Compressor End Sealing Systems

Labyrinth Sealing
Floating Oil Seals

Oil Mechanical Seals


Air Injection Sealing System

Injection / Extraction Sealing


Dry Gas Seals

Gas Mechanical Sealing System

Labyrinth Sealing With Steam Ejector

Labyrinth Sealing With Gas Ejector Recovery System

Labyrinth Sealing With Air Injection

Floating oil seal

Dry Gas Seal

Dry Gas Seal

Advantages of Dry Gas Seal


Atmospheric leakages are very low
Oil free operation hence no oil contamination to process gas Minimum auxiliary equipment Reduction in power loss Extremely compact and trouble free

Seal Gas Skid System for Dry Gas Seals


Supply Clean gas Monitor Seal Leakage Supply Buffer Gas Initiate alarms & shutdowns when necessary

Applicable Standards

API 610 Centrifugal Pumps API 611 Auxiliary Steam Turbines API 612 Drive Steam Turbines API 613 Gearbox API 614 Oil Systems API 616 Drive Gas turbines API 617 Centrifugal Compressors

Applicable Standards

API 670 Instrumentation API 671 Couplings API 672 Packaged, Integrally Geared Compressors API 676 Positive Displacement Pumps IS 325 Auxiliary Electric Motors ASME PTC 10 Performance Test ASME Sec. VIII & IX Heat Exchangers

Auxiliaries & Subsystems

Compressors require the following subsystems for their reliable, safe and efficient operation;

Lube oil
Anti-surge and performance control system Sealing (oil, DGS, ejector etc.) system

Instrumentation and monitoring system


Coolers and separators.