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DESIGN OF BIOGAS DIGESTERS

By SHARATH CHANDRA. J (2012H148035H)

K. VENKATESH

(2012H148038H)

Energy Forms
Primary energy sources
(A) Fossil energy sources Hard coal Brown coal Petroleum (B) Renewable energy sources Water Sun Wind (C) Nuclear fuels Uranium Plutonium Thorium

Natural gas
Oil shale Tar sand Gas hydrate

Geothermal heat
Tides

Biomass
Secondary Energy Sources

Biogas Landfill gas

INTRODUCTION
Biogas

typically refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
is clean environment friendly fuel that can be obtained by anaerobic digestion of animal residues and domestic and farm wastes, abundantly available in the countryside.

It

Biogas

generally comprise of 55-65 % methane, 35-45 % carbon dioxide, 0.5-1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of water vapor. Average calorific value of biogas is 20 MJ/m3 (4713 kcal/m3). Critical temperature required for liquefaction of methane is -82.1oC at 4.71MPa pressure, therefore use of biogas is limited nearby the biogas plant. An estimate indicates that India has a potential of generating 6.38 X 1010 m3 of biogas from 980 million tones of cattle dung produced annually. The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.3 X 1012 MJ. In addition, 350 million tones of manure would also produce along with biogas.

POTENTIAL OF BIOGAS IN INDIA


*

Cattle population

: 300 million
: : 75 million 43 million

* Farm families * Own 4 or more cattle * Potential of setting up family size BGP * Established till Dec 2009 * Dung collection (55% efficiency) *Gas production *Assuming 60% eff. equivalent to

: 12 million : 4.1 million : 1575 million kg/day : 39.85million cu-m of gas/day = 112695 million K. Cal/day = 12.37 million L of kerosene = 14.54 million L of crude oil = 16.26 million Kg of coal = 23.94 million lit. of fire wood = 131.04 million kWh. of electricity

ORGANIC WASTES & THEIR ESTIMATED AVAILABILITY IN INDIA


Sr. No. Organic Wastes Estimated Quantity

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Municipal Solid waste


Municipal liquid waste Distillery (243 units) Press mud Food & fruit processing wastes Willow dust Dairy industry waste

30 million tons/year
12000 million litres/day 8057 kilolitres/day 9 million tons/year 4.5 million tons/year 30000 tons/year 50-60 million litres/day

8.
9.

Paper & pulp industry waste (300 mills)


Tannery (2000 units)

1600 m3/day
52500 m3 waste water/day

Source: MNES Report, Renewable Energy in India and business opportunities, MNES. Govt. of India, New Delhi, 2001

BIOGAS PRODUCTION PROCESS


Biogas production process (Anaerobic digestion) is a multiple-stage process in which some main stages are:

Chemical reactions involved in biogas production:


C6H12O6 3CO2 + 3CH4 CO2 + 4H2 > CH4 + 2H2O CH3COOH > CH4 + CO2

THE QUANTITY, RATE AND COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS GENERATED DEPENDS ON


The

nature and concentration of the substrate, or material.


rate, population,

Feed

pH

value, and

Bacterial Chemical

Temperature,

inducers.

Overview of commercially viable technologies


Family size biogas plants (1 to 10 m3 )
Large scale biogas plants (10 to 140 m3) Large scale plants above 1000 m3

Gas Out let In let

Dome

Out let Digester

FIXED DOME TYPE BIOGAS PLANT

An outline of fixed dome biogas plant

Detailed structural design of fixed dome biogas plant

Drum Inlet

Gas outlet Outlet

In let Pipe

Out let Pipe

Digester

Benefits:
Capacity to maintain steady pressure of biogas by the movement of gas holder

FLOATING DRUM TYPE BIOGAS PLANT

Inbuilt provision for scum breaking Volume of gas is known just by observing the position of the drum

Fixed Dome type family size Biogas plant [1] Deenbandhu


1

[2] Modified for solid state * Water : (-) 3/4th * Space : (-) 3/4th * Gas : (+) 30% * Operation easier * Cost almost same

DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR A SMALL FAMILY DIGESTER

The monthly gas requirement dictates the amount of daily input. So, assuming that we need we need 14 kg of Butane C4H10 (one bottle) monthly for cooking. This would amount about 28 Kg of Biogas, so daily input needs to be able to Produce 28 kg of Biogas /month. Daily volume multiplied by 40 is a good figure for digester size. This will give the material 40 days to digest. The digester must be kept at a constant temperature. This is best done with good tank insulation and a solar water heater. The optimal temperature lies in the range of about 30 - 37C degrees. About 0.15 kg of bio gas in minimum rate can be produced from one kg of dry organic waste. Contd..

DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR A SMALL FAMILY DIGESTER

Then if we need 28 kg of bio gas to be equivalent to one bottle of Butane (14 kg) based on calorific value of butane is double of calorific Value of bio gas, which can be enough for one home during one month. Amount of dry waste needed per month= 28 kg biogas / 0.15 kg biogas/ 1 kg dry water = 186.67kg waste / month If we used the ratio 1: 1 water to be added then we need 186. 67 litre of water to be added to our 186. 67kg of organic waste then the total volume we Need 373.33 litres (~375L). Tank Volume = Volume of mixture + 20% of mixture volume for gas space = volume of mixture (1+0.2) = 375 Litter (1.2) = 450 Litre, (SAY 500 Litter) tank volume we need

= 1/2 m^3 tank volume will be good choice

Sketch of a family digester (0.5 m^3).

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A FAMILY TYPE BIOGAS PLANT


Table : Requirements and costs for constructing the family design
Requirements Digging operation 1/2 cubic meter drum (0.4mm) 2 rigid plastic pipes Gas valve and connectors Steel non return valve Miscellaneous Total Cost (INR) 7500 7500

750
3000 3000 1500 23250 (~25000)

Contd..

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A FAMILY TYPE BIOGAS PLANT


Running cost The annual running costs are:
1.

Annual running cost to operate the digester =10% of digester cost [37] + water cost = 2500+5000= 7500/Year
(5000) water cost/year =200Liter/40day * 365 day/year=1825 Litre/Y

2.

Biogas profit

Profit of produced biogas = (700 / one butane bottle /month) * 12 month/Year = 8400/Year.
Fertilizer Profit. Price of 1 ton fertilizer 5000/Ton Yearly fertilizer produced = 200kg /40 day x 365 day /year = 1825 kg/year = 1.825 ton/year =>Yearly fertilizer profit = 1.825ton x 5000 = 9000/year

ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A FAMILY TYPE BIOGAS PLANT


Total income/Year = biogas profit+ Fertilizer profit [37] Total income/Year = 17400 The profit /year = income profit - running cost [37] The profit /year = 17400 7500 = 10000/The Simple Bay Back Period = capital cost /annual profit [37] = 25000 / 10000= 2.5 years This means, the rural family will get back the capital cost within a time period less than three years which is a reasonable period.

Conclusions

The suitable family digester type is the single stag patch digester With V=0.5m. This will make a benefit of 10000/year and the Simple payback period of it is less than three years. Under ideal conditions temperature 35 C, pH value 6-7, and retention time 40 days in rural India, it is possible to produce about 0.15 kg of gas per kg dry waste at atmospheric pressure. Biogas is a source of renewable energy usually contains about 50 - 70 % CH 4, 30 - 40 CO 2, and other gases , it has a heat value of 34200kJ/kg (9.5 kWh / kg) which equals 1/2 heat value of C4H10.

Recommendations

More researches and practical studies have to be done to improve biogas plants in our country.

The Indian government has to fund most of digesters which can be built in rural areas with good cooperation between farmers and related sectors as energy, environment and agricultural sectors to improve and apply digesters in India.
Strong backing in the new waste strategy should mean that we start to fulfil this potential, with the widespread introduction of food waste collection management and the construction of more AD plants across the nation.

Like biofuel. biogas is used as a substitute to mainstream fossil fuels. It can either be fed through the grid and used for heating purposes, or burnt in large power stations and converted to electricity."

Thank You