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One Day Offshore Safety Training

Pillai Sreejith

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Introduction
Offshore Safety Case Training

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Why this training?


Major accidents do happen around the world, some of them recent, have caused us to ask if they can happen to us and they certainly can! We need to ensure they do not happen to us by:
Re-emphasising our safety management system; Updating our existing Field safety Case; and Ensuring you all know about it!!
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What will we learn today?


The difference between occupational/personal and process safety; What is a major accident; What is and what is in an offshore Safety Case; What are the safety barriers / controls/ systems/ Safety Critical Systems (SCE) that prevent major accidents; The part we all must play in preventing major accidents; and Test our understanding of what we have learned through Piper Alpha accident.
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Major Accidents in Oil & Gas Industries


Piper Alpha 1988 Major fire and explosion 167 people died Caused by PTW failure, PFP flaws and layout issues Bombay High 2005 MSV collision with platform and major fire 11 People died Caused by riser damage from MSV impact Texas City Refinery 2005 petroleum distillate overflowed causing explosion & flash fire 14 People died Caused by maintenance & process start-up flaws Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Recent Major Accidents in your offshore Field?


Please include details of major accidents (and near-misses) that occurred in your installation/s to tell the participants the need for them to be cautious. Include photographs if you have.

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Offshore Training pack

Major Modifications
List down the major modifications (process / marine) that occurred in your offshore installation/s in the past 1 year to tell them that the risk profile has changed:
Examples:

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Flare system modifications Addition of a hydrocarbon process equipment Change in mooring system Addition of gas compression facilities
Offshore Training pack

What is a safety case?


Operators of offshore installations want to be sure that their operations are safe and do not expose their people or their business to unacceptable levels of risk; Plant modifications, variations on operating conditions and new ownership mean that the risk picture is changing; and Regulators and other stakeholders ask you to justify the continuing operation of the installation through safety cases.
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Corporate HSE Management System Show your HSEMS through a flow chart or a diagram to explain how periodic risk assessment/s are done to update safety case, as part of global sustainability reporting / CSR.

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Offshore Training pack

Offshore Safety Case Update project


Key

steps involved:

Offshore site visit (to assess the safety critical element / barrier performance); Risk Assessment (using realistic field inputs such as barrier performance to be used in QRA event gates in frequency analysis); and Safety Case update
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1 day Training Contents


Difference between Occupational /personal and Process & Marine Safety; What is a major accident?; Major Offshore accident case studies;
Piper Alpha Mumbai High Platform BP Texas Refinery

Potential Major accidents for offshore complex; Offshore Safety Case; Safety Barriers in the offshore complex / installation; and Safety training assessment.

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Offshore Training pack

Breaks for the day


10.30 am: Tea / Coffee Break 12.30 to 1.30 pm: Lunch break 3.30 pm: Tea / Coffee Break

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Offshore Training pack

Key Message Once the safety systems /barriers fail, there can be major accidents!!!
Only you can operate and maintain safety systems without flaws.
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Session Break

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Offshore Training pack

Occupational /Personal, Marine and Process Hazards

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Learning objectives
To understand major accidents; To understand the difference between occupational/personal, marine and process hazards; To understand the Swiss Cheese accident causation model and Bow Tie barrier concept; To learn the importance of barriers in controlling major accidents and To appreciate the need to maintain the safety systems in order to control / mitigate major accidents.
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Are these terms too obvious and more of a commonsense issue?


If so, why are we discussing this?
Discussion trigger: BP Texas findings by Mr. Baker panel.

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Offshore Training pack

Major Accident
(UK HSE SC Regulations,2005 ) A Major Accident defined by UK HSE is:
A fire, explosion or the release of a dangerous substance involving death or serious personal injury to persons on the installation or engaged in an activity or in connection with it; An event involving major damage to the structure of the installation or plant affixed thereto or any loss in the stability of the installation; The collision of a helicopter with the installation; The failure of life support systems for diving operations in connection with the installation; and Any other event arising from a work activity involving death or serious personal injury to five or more persons on the installation or engaged in an activity in connection with it.

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Offshore Training pack

Major Accidents
Examples Deadliest accident so far: 1988 Piper Alpha (167 fatalities); 2nd deadliest: 1980 Alexander L. Kielland Accommodation rig capsized during a storm (123 fatalities); 3rd deadliest: 1989 Seacrest drillship capsized during a typhoon (91 fatalities ); and 9th Deadliest: 2005 Mumbai High Platform fire (22 fatalities).
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Potential Major Accidents in your Offshore Field


Examples please customize
Blowouts Riser & Pipeline releases Process Hydrocarbon Releases Fire & Explosion Ship Collision Dropped Objects Transportation Accidents Helicopter crash Projectile/Missile impact Structural damage Turret Failure Cargo Tank explosion
Offshore Training pack

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Occupational Hazards
Personal or Occupational Health and Safety Hazards Can give rise to incidents or accidents that primarily affect one individual worker for each occurrence

Personnel injury from:


Slips, trips and falls; Electrical shocks; Adverse effects from high noise/heat/dust/fumes; Minor cuts / bruises; and Struck-by objects.

Generally OH are avoided by wearing PPEs & following procedures


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Occupational Accidents
Mainly those accidents that can be controlled by the use of PPEs

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Process Safety & Marine Hazards


Process and Marine Safety Hazards Can give rise to major accidents that can have catastrophic effects and can result in multiple injuries and fatalities, as well as substantial economic, property and environmental damage

Examples of these are:


Fires / Explosions Helicopter crash Dropped objects damaging structure or FPSO hull Un-ignited gas releases Ship collisions Riser / pipeline ruptures
Offshore Training pack

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Safety Performance OH & PSH


Performance for occupational safety is measured through (eg.) lost time injuries (LTI); and Performance for process safety is measured process safety equipment performance, hydrocarbon releases, fires, etc.
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Process Safety Accident

BP Texas City Refinery Fire and Explosion (15 killed, 180 injured)
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Marine Accident

Ship collision in Japanese waters causing major damage (July 27, 2007)
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Source courtesy: Internet

Loss Iceberg

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Offshore Training pack

Bow-tie Barrier Concept


Events and Circumstances BARRIERS Harm to people and damage to assets or environment

H A Z A R D

Major accident

C O N S E Q U E N C E S

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Construction /Engineering activities Maintenance activities Offshore Training pack Operations activities

Source courtesy: Internet

Barriers for Potential Major Accidents


Major Potential Accidents

Inspections

Maintenance

Audits

Turret failure

Ignition control

Cargo tank explosions

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Offshore Training pack

Do you know where these safety barriers are in your installation/s?


Fire walls (are they A or H or J type? What does these alphabets mean?; if there is A 60 fire wall, is this acceptable? Why?) Blast walls (are blast and fire walls same? How are their locations decided?) Flame / flash back arrestors ESD push buttons
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Safety Barriers
Explanation-Example 1 Ignition Control
Hazardous Area Classification Use of Ex type equipment (do you know how they are designed? Why cant they be designed as vapour / gas tight?) Flash back arrestors, spark arrestors Static charge discharge control (bonding, when do you install bonding? Why is this done?) Lightning control (how do you control these hazards?) Inert gas system for cargo tanks Use of inert gas system to dilute hydrocarbon vapours at vents
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Safety Barriers
Explanation-Example 2 What are the difference between Passive Fire Protection (PFP) & Active Fire Protection (AFP)? Examples of PFP?
Fire walls In tumescent coatings (ESD valves?) Heat shields on the escape routes?

Examples of AFP?
Deluge FM 200 Gaseous Fire Fighting system Fire & Gas Detection system
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Fire walls, Blast walls, Heat Shields


J 45/ H60, 0.3 bar Blast wall

A 60 Firewall

Blast wall in place

Heat Shield

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Source courtesy: Internet sources Offshore Training pack

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Hydro Carbon Releases


Performance Indicators (Leading & lagging)
Maintenance Checks/test Calibration Loop Checks Simulation Audits MOC/ECR

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PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

Prevention barriers
HAC Static Electric Audits

IGNITION CONTROL
Loop checks for BD Audits/Inspection CFIs on Relief Valves

BLOWDOWN & RELIEF SYSTEM


Loop Checks Detector Calibrations Audits MOC/ECR

FIRE & GAS DETECTION

Explosion / Fire Swiss Cheese Model


CFT on ESDV Loop Checks Audits/Inspection

Offshore Training pack


EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION

CFT on Fire Pumps & Valves Testing of foam concentrate MOC

Integrity Inspection of PFP firewalls Audits MOC

Mitigation barriers

Fire Drills Audits

EXPLOSION

Discuss
For major accident control, which side of the bow tie should be strong? Left (prevention) or the right side (mitigation) ? Why?
Major Accident

Discussion trigger: Can a gas explosion be effectively mitigated prevented with water deluge? Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Learning
Major accidents; Potential major accidents at your offshore installation; Difference between personal / occupational, marine and process accidents; Swiss Cheese & Bow Tie safety concepts; and Importance of safety barriers in controlling major accidents.
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Session Break

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Offshore Training pack

Major Accidents in your Offshore Field

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Learning Objectives
To learn about the major accidents that occurred in your offshore complex to understand What went wrong?; and To think about the potential barrier failures that might exist at offshore installations which could lead to potential major accidents.
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Offshore Complex
Show the field diagram Show the platforms / FPSOs and the interconnecting pipelines Include the major additions / modifications to highlight to the participants that the installation has changed over the years
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Platform Accident Details


Show the accident & near-miss trends (bar chart) and discuss cause breakdown (pie-chart) A graph that shows no particular trend (upward or downward) could mean:
The HSE is not under control; The HSE performance / accident data collection / analysis is not proper; No one knows what will be the future HSE performance is!
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Major Accidents
Identify major accidents, hi-potential incidents, near-misses; Discuss each of the major cases from the detail reports to explain: Causes Consequences Risk reduction recommendations Implementation status Any similar accidents occurred?

If there are any photos of these accidents, show them.


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Causes
Examples
Inadequate planning / organization; Flaws in PTW procedures; Written job procedure did not anticipate contributing factors; Failure to follow known job procedure (s); Inadequate training; Supervisor failure to identify unsafe condition; and Failure to communicate.
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Learning
If no concrete action is taken to rectify the cause of
the incident permanently, it might lead to an accident next time round History has proven this; Accidents could happen even with safety barriers in place; Personnel play an extremely important role in promoting safety competency, experience and knowledge is important; and We need to ensure that the safety barriers are maintained so as to control / mitigate accidents.
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Session Break

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Offshore Training pack

Potential Major Accident Events at Your Offshore Complex

In this presentation, the typical potential major accidents for FPSO / platform are included. This will require customisation in line with the field QRA results.

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Offshore Training pack pillai_sreejith@hotmail.

com

Learning Objectives
To learn about the potential major accidents that can occur in offshore field and to understand the consequences; To be aware of the major risk contributors at offshore installations; and To be aware of the risk levels for various personnel at your offshore field.

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Offshore Training pack

Potential Major Accidents 1


Examples
1. Surface Blowout 4. Ship collisions

2. Riser / Pipeline Releases 5. Dropped Objects

3. Process HC Releases Fires / Explosions 6. Transportation Accidents Sreejith Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Potential Major Accidents 2 Examples


7. Helicopter crash 10. Turret Failure

8. Projectile / Missile impact 11. Cargo Tank Explosion

9. Structural damage

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Risk Terminology
Individual Risk (IR) Individual Risk Per Annum is the frequency with which an individual may be expected to sustain fatal harm due to exposure to specific hazards in a year

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

ALARP Triangle

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

What does risk mean?

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Manning distribution Transportation details Heat & Material Balance diagram P&IDs PFDs General Arrangement / Layouts Design basis and safety philosophies
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Essential data used in Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)

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Areas Show the areas considered in the QRA Explain the manning distribution of various personnel categories in the areas Tell them the risks calculated is rather realistic since we have considered more facts

Offshore Installation

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Offshore Training pack

Fires and Explosions


Pool Fire Jet fire Vapour Cloud Explosion Flash Fire
Explain consequences of each type of fires Sreejith the causes and Offshore Training pack including their impairment potential

Impairment
Discuss impingement and impairment from pool and jet fires Pool fire impingement on steel structures:
10 minutes

Jet fire impingement on steel structures:


5 minutes

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Courtesy: CMPT QRA Offshore Training pack Guidelines

Risk assessment Flow Chart


HAZID: Identify potential hazards Sectionalisation: Review PFDs, UFDs & P&IDs to separate the process and utility system to various isolatable sections.

Causal Analysis: Identify hazardous events associated with accidents

Frequency Analysis and Event Tree Analysis: Frequency of each accidental event (top event) and branch probabilities are assigned to event tree and outcome event frequency are estimated.

Consequence Modelling: Using the software. The physical effects and damages for each outcome event are estimated

Impact Assessment: Analyse the fire and explosion impact to structures and equipment.

Risk Assessment Fatality Estimation: Determine the risk to personnel from each outcome event. Risk Summation and Risk Ranking: Sum the risks to individual from each outcome events for hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon hazards and identify the dominant risk contributors. Risk Assessment: Compare the risk levels against Individual Risk Acceptability Criteria to determine whether additional measures are necessary to reduce risks to ALARP.

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Offshore Training Risk reducing measures: Apply pack enhanced or additional control measures and mitigation
measures.

Potential Major Accidents


Offshore Field

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Offshore Training pack

MAE 1 Surface Blowout


Causes: Failure of choke valve Failure of XMas tree / DHSV / SCSSV Presence of ignition sources

Consequences: Jet Fire Major asset damage Multiple fatalities / injuries

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

Subsea blow out


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Fire Contours
Show the jet, pool fire contours superimposed on the offshore installation layout drawing to show them the potential effects.

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Offshore Training pack

MAE 5 Dropped Objects


Causes: Failure of lifting equipment (overload / damaged lifting equipment) Failure of crane equipment (overload, etc.) Lifting without following procedures / controls Consequences: Asset damage (hull, equipment, platform, etc.) Multiple fatalities / injuries

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

Transportation Accidents
Helicopter, boat, personnel transfers

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Risks from transportation

ANOA FIELD

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 6 Transportation Accidents


Causes: Mechanical failure of boats / helicopter/ flights Extraneous weather conditions Material defects of personal transfer baskets or associated lifting tackles

Consequences: Asset damage (hull, equipment, platform, etc.) Multiple fatalities / injuries

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

Personnel Basket Transfers

Protection from side & vertical impacts? Personnel falling from height due to giddiness, loss of grip, high wind, loss of balance, etc. Sreejith Offshore Training pack Is there an option?

MAE 7 Helicopter Crash


Causes: Failure of helicopter (engine failure / extreme weather) Failure of communication equipment Fire / explosion in FPSO / Platform Pilot error Consequences: Fire Major asset / helicopter damage Multiple fatalities / injuries

There are hardly any known occurrences of Helicopter crashing into FPSO or platform
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Source courtesy: Internet

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 8 Projectiles / Missiles


Causes: Failure of equipment due to overpressure Inadequate design Missiles / projectiles from gas turbines and FPSO steam turbines

Consequences: Asset damage (hull, equipment, etc.) Multiple fatalities / injuries

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 9 Structural Events


Causes: Structural failures due to extreme weather Corrosion Inadequate design Crane boom collision

Consequences: Asset damage Multiple fatalities / injuries

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 9 Structural Events

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 9 Structural Events

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 10 Turret Failure

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Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy: Internet

MAE 11 Cargo Tank Explosion

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FPSO Offshore Training pack

Overall Risk for Offshore Complex Explain the Individual Risk (IR) for the various personnel categories;
Explain the PLL (Potential Loss Of Life) values for the complex and various personnel categories; Discuss if the IR value is within the ALARP tolerable region; Explain the major risk contributors for the offshore complex; Explain what is base case IR, and ALARP IR cases (sensitivity cases); and Explain what is traffic light system and how is it used to determine Realistic Risk levels? pillai_sreejith@hotmail.c Offshore Training pack om

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What is Traffic Light system?


Traffic Light system is used as an assessment tool by UK HSE, NOPSA, etc.

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Offshore Training pack

Traffic lights system and performance of safety systems


Traffic light system was used to assess the performance of safety systems; The performance of safety systems were determined based on:
Critical maintenance test results; Accidents / incidents; Maintenance backlogs; and Offshore audit findings.
How will the TL System used to calculate Sreejith Offshore Training pack impairment / event frequencies in QRA?

Traffic Light Interpretation


Tolerable

Partially degraded

Acce ptab le

Safety Systems Performance


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Not accepta

ble

Earlier risk IR 1 Risk after Safety System performance Assessment IR 3 Base case risk IR 2

Potential residual risk after improvements IR 4

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Offshore Training pack

Learning
Individual Risk for all offshore personnel are within the acceptable limits; Understanding potential major accidents for offshore installations (causes and consequences); Understanding the major risk contributors at offshore field; and Understanding the personnel risk levels for various categories.
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Session Break

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Offshore Training pack

Offshore Safety Cases

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pilliai_sreejith@hotmail.com Offshore Training pack

Learning objectives
To understand the objective of Safety Cases; To understand The UK HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005; To understand the typical SC update triggers; and To know the Typical Safety Case contents.

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Offshore Training pack

Safety Case-Definition
A documented body of evidence that provides a convincing and valid argument that a system is adequately safe for a given application in a given environment

Safety Case exists for Nuclear, Offshore, Aviation, and Rail industries

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Offshore Training pack

Safety Case Origin


(post 1988 Piper Alpha explosion)

UK Offshore Operators, says Cullen, must adopt this new philosophy on safety, producing a Safety Case'. This includes continuous hazard assessment over the plant's lifetime, fault tree analysis, which looks at all the ways an error could develop, and takes account of ways that 'human factors' contribute to disasters
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Safety Case Evolution Timeline

Forthwith: Immediate, at once Lord Cullen recommended that the 4 (FEA, ESSA, EERA,SIGA) be carried out by the offshore operators immediately before the 1992 safety case regulation was released. Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Why Offshore Safety Case?


Operators of offshore installations want to be sure that their operations are safe and do not expose their people or their business to unacceptable levels of risk; Plant modifications, variations on operating conditions and new ownership mean that the risk picture is changing; and Regulators and other stakeholders ask you to justify the continuing operation of the installation through safety cases. Regulatory compliance is essential to your business
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Safety Case
First SC Regulations came into force in 1992; Cullen Forthwith studies:
A Fire Risk Analysis; An assessment of the risk of ingress of smoke or gas into the accommodation; A review of the ability of emergency systems to withstand severe accident conditions; and An evacuation, escape and rescue analysis.
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The UK HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005


Key changes introduced by the 2005 Regulations include: -The requirement for duty holders to send an early design notification, instead of a design safety case, to HSE when establishing a new production installation; -Duty holders are required to carry out a thorough and fundamental review of their safety cases at least every five years, or as directed by HSE; -The present requirement to re-submit safety cases every three years has been removed (inspectors will be checking to see that safety cases are being kept up to date through inspection); -New duties require licensees to ensure anyone they appoint as an operator is capable of fulfilling their legal responsibilities for safety; -Combined operations safety cases have been replaced by notifications, which do not need HSE acceptance; and -The Offshore Installations (Safety Representatives and Safety Committees) Regulations have been amended to extend consultation with safety representatives to reviewing and revising a safety case, as well as preparing one.

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Typical Contents of Safety Case


Facility description HSE Management system Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) Summary Safety Critical elements and Performance Standards ALARP Demonstration Fitness to Operate
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Safety Case Update Triggers


Examples

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Learning
Origin and objectives of Safety Case; Piper Alpha Accident & Safety Case; The UK HSE Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005; Typical SC contents; and Typical SC update triggers.

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Offshore Training pack

Session Break

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Offshore Training pack

Safety Barriers and their Role in Controlling Major accidents

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Learning objectives
To understand the critical role of safety barriers / safety systems in controlling major accidents using Bow-Tie diagram; To understand safety barriers on offshore installations; To appreciate the need to maintain the barriers through maintenance system, inspections, etc.; and To identify and monitor performance of safety barriers through lead and lag indicators.
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Bow Tie Diagram

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Barriers for Potential Major Accidents

Inspections

Audits
Turret failures Cargo tank explosions

Ignition control

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Offshore Training pack

UK HSE KP 3 Inspection Results

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

What is wrong at present in oil & gas industry?


Unacceptable level of process safety related dangerous occurrences especially in relation to loss of containment incidents; Major hazard industry measured safety performance using LTIs!! Critical systems deteriorate over time without warning until they fail catastrophically; and Audits tend to be too infrequent and workplace inspections focus on personal safety.
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Process Safety Management System


An effective process safety management system measures performance
Key performance indicators must include appropriate indicators of process safety performance
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Key Performance Indicators set to identify defects in safety systems

Accident Trajectory
Lagging indicator

Lagging indicator

Leading indicator

Lagging indicator

Permit-to-work
Leading indicator

Inspection & Maintenance Lagging indicator


Leading indicator

Staff Competence

System defects

Leading indicator Operational Procedures

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Hydro Carbon Releases


Performance Indicators (Leading & lagging)
Maintenance Checks/test Calibration Loop Checks Simulation Audits MOC/ECR

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PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION
HAC Static Electric Audits

IGNITION CONTROL
Loop checks for BD Audits/Inspection CFIs on Relief Valves

BLOWDOWN & RELIEF SYSTEM


Loop Checks Detector Calibrations Audits MOC/ECR

FIRE & GAS DETECTION


CFT on ESDV Loop Checks Audits/Inspection

PROCESS HYDROCARBON RELEASES/FIRES/EXPLOSIONS Example

Offshore Training pack


EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION

Fire Drills Audits

CFT on Fire Pumps & Valves Testing of foam concentrate MOC

Integrity Inspection of PFP firewalls Audits MOC

EXPLOSION

Dual Performance Assurance


Dual Assurance - leading and lagging indicators measuring performance of each critical element of a Process Safety Management System

Reactive Monitoring Lagging Indicator: Outcome Indicator

Critical Process Safety Risk Control System

Active Monitoring Leading Indicators: Process or Input Indicators

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

How effective are YOUR safety systems? Traffic light system was used to assess the performance of safety systems; Each of the safety systems were assessed based on:
Critical Maintenance Test (CMT) results; Accidents / incidents; Maintenance backlogs; and Audit findings.
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Traffic Light Interpretation


Tolerable

Partially degraded

Acce ptab le

Safety Systems Performance


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Not accepta

ble

Offshore Audit Findings


Examples H 60 fire walls penetrated to pass pipes and electrical conduits Fire water deluge not provided for critical hydrocarbon systems / valve clusters Flame Detectors obstructed with pipework Hazardous area Classification compromised Ex equipment maintenance flaws
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Safety Barrier Performance

Inspections

Audits
Turret failures Cargo tank explosions

Ignition control

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Offshore Training pack

Process Safety Management Major Hazard Analysis/Maintenance Loop

Maintenance Management

Are The Barriers Being Properly Maintained?

Major Hazard Analysis

IDENTIFY Barriers; (SCEs)

Performance Indicators Are They Suitable?

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Offshore Training pack Source courtesy: Internet

Learning
Concept of Safety barriers in major accident control; and Role of offshore personnel in ensuring integrity of safety barriers by monitoring performance indicators; and Performance of safety systems to control major hazards cannot be monitored using LTIs which calls for a shift in focus.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Key Message Once the safety systems fail, there can be major accidents!!!
Only you can operate & maintain safety systems without flaws.

Sreejith

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com Offshore Training pack