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INTRODU CTION

DEFINITION OF THEORY
Theory is a creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects a tentative, purposeful, and systematic view of phenomena.
-Chin & Kramer (2004)

PURPOSE OF THEORY
Support the development of knowledge through thesis and contestability. Explains and predicts outcomes. Supports decision making.

PURPOSE OF THEORY

Embeds goals and outcomes for the client and by implication for the nurse. Supports modeling of processes of nursing.

CONCEPTS IN THE NURSING METAPARADIGM

The concepts that are considered to nursing and are discussed in nursing theories include four major concepts. Each of these four concepts will differ depending on the author. They are:

CONCEPTS IN THE NURSING METAPARADIGM

Person: May represent an individual, family, a community, or all of mankind. Environment: May represent the immediate persons physical surroundings, the community, or the universe and all that it

CONCEPTS IN THE NURSING METAPARADIGM

Health: Represents a state of wellness mutually decided by the client and the nurse. Nursing: Nursing is the practice of the science and art of the discipline.

PEPLAUS THEORY AND NURSINGS METAPARADIGM

Person: As an organism that strives in its own way to reduce tension generated by needs.

PEPLAUS THEORY AND NURSINGS METAPARADIGM


Environment

Although Peplau does not directly address environment, she does encourage nurse to consider the patients culture and mores when the patient adjust to hospital routine.

PEPLAUS THEORY AND NURSINGS METAPARADIGM The nurse examines many more factors, such as cultural background and home and work environment, rather than considering only a patients adjustment to the hospital. The theory does not examine the broad range of environmental influences on the person but focuses

PEPLAUS THEORY AND NURSINGS METAPARADIGM Health A word symbol that implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living.

PEPLAUS THEORY AND NURSINGS METAPARADIGM


Nursing A significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible. She defines it as a human relationship between an individual who is sick, or in need of health services, and a nurse especially educated to recognize and to respond to the need for help.

PEPLAUS PHASES IN NURSING

Orientation
Identification Exploitation Resolution

PEPLAUS PHASES IN NURSING


Values Values Culture Culture Race Nurse-Patient Preconceived Ideas NURSE Beliefs Beliefs Race Preconceived Ideas PATIENT

Relationship

Past Experiences
Past Experiences Expectations Expectations

Factors Influencing the Blending of the Nurse-Patient Relationship

PEPLAUS PHASES IN NURSING

Overlapping phases in nurse- patient relationship

ROLES OF NURSE

Stranger: Receives the client in the same way one meets a stranger in other life situations provides an accepting climate that builds trust.

Teacher: Who imparts knowledge in reference to a need or interest. Resource Person: One who provides specific needed information that aids in the understanding of a problem or new situation.

ROLES OF NURSE
Counselor: helps to understand and integrate the meaning of current life circumstances, provides guidance and encouragement to make changes. Surrogate: helps to clarify domains of dependence interdependence and independence and acts on clients behalf as an advocate. Leader: helps client assume maximum responsibility for meeting treatment goals in

PEPLAUS WORK AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY


1. The phases of orientation, identification, exploitation and resolution interrelates components of each phase. This interrelationship creates a different perspective from which to view the nursepatient interaction and the transaction of health care. This interaction can apply the concepts of human being health, society/ environment and nursing. For example, in the phase of orientation, there are

PEPLAUS WORK AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY


2. Peplaus theory provides a logical systematic way of viewing nursing situation. The concepts are clearly defined. 3. The phases provide simplicity regarding the natural progressing of the nurse-patient relationship. This simplicity leads to adaptability in any nurse patient interaction thus providing generalizability.

PEPLAUS WORK AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY


4. Peplaus theory has generated testable hypotheses. In 1989, Forchuk and Brown created an instrument to assess the Peplaus nurse-patient relationships and tested the instrument on 132 clients. 5.Peplaus work has contributed greatly to nursings body of knowledge such as her work on anxiety.

PEPLAUS WORK AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY


6. Nursing is still defined as an interpersonal process built upon the progressive nurse patient phases. As she proposed, communication and interviewing skills remain fundamental nursing tools. 7. In general this theory is consistent with current theories and research. Interpersonal theories, including Sullivans and Frommes are foundation in the theory. Peplaus concept and phases are consistent with other theories such as Maslows need theory and selyed stress

COMPARISON OF NURSING PROCESS AND PEPLAUS PHASES

LIMITATIONS OF PEPLAUS THEORY


Intra family dynamics, personal space considerations and community social service resources are considered less. Health promotion and maintenance were less emphasized. Cannot be used in a patient who doesnt have a felt need. e.g. With drawn patients, unconscious patients. some areas are not specific enough to generate hypothesis.

APPLICATION OF PEPLAUS THEORY

CONCLUSION
As nursing broadens its scope, there appears to be a need for further development of Peplaus use with the healthy patient group and community. Further development is also indicated for clients who are unable to use their communication skills effectively. Increased use of Peplaus theory in practice is needed.