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Transmission Lines

Classification of line length depends on: Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR), and Nominal voltage Length considerations: Short Lines: SIR > 4 Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4 Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
1/ GE / August-3-13

Typical Protection Schemes


Short Lines

Current differential Phase comparison Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)

2/ GE / August-3-13

Typical Protection Schemes


Medium Lines

Phase comparison Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT) Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Unblocking Step Distance Step or coordinated overcurrent Inverse time overcurrent Current Differential
3/ GE / August-3-13

Typical Protection Schemes


Long Lines

Phase comparison Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB) Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT) Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT) Unblocking Step Distance Step or coordinated overcurrent Current Differential
4/ GE / August-3-13

What is distance protection?


Intended REACH point F1 Z I*Z - V I*Z V=I*ZF

RELAY (V,I)

For internal faults: > IZ V and V approximately in phase (mho) > IZ V and IZ approximately in phase (reactance)

5/ GE / August-3-13

What is distance protection?


F2 Intended REACH point

Z I*Z - V

I*Z V=I*ZF

RELAY (V,I)

For external faults: > IZ V and V approximately out of phase (mho) > IZ V and IZ approximately out of phase (reactance)

6/ GE / August-3-13

What is distance protection?


Intended REACH point

RELAY

7/ GE / August-3-13

Distance Element Fundamentals

Z1 XL

End Zone

R XC

Maximum Torque Angle


Angle at which mho element has maximum reach Characteristics with smaller MTA will accommodate larger amount of arc resistance

9/ GE / August-3-13

Blinders
Blinders limit the operation of distance relays (quad or mho) to a narrow region that parallels and encompasses the protected line Applied to long transmission lines, where mho settings are large enough to pick up on maximum load or minor system swings

10 / GE / August-3-13

Quadrilateral Characteristics

11 / GE / August-3-13

Quadrilateral Characteristics

Ground Resistance (Conductor falls on ground) R Resultant impedance outside of the mho operating region

12 / GE / August-3-13

Distance Characteristics Summary Mho Lenticular


JX

Quadrilatera l

R
Standard for phase elements Used for phase elements with long heavily loaded lines heavily loaded Better coverage for ground faults due to resistance added to return path

13 / GE / August-3-13

Step Distance Schemes


Zone 1:
Trips with no intentional time delay Underreaches to avoid unnecessary operation for faults beyond remote terminal Typical reach setting range 80-90% of ZL Zone 2: Set to protect remainder of line Overreaches into adjacent line/equipment Minimum reach setting 120% of ZL Typically time delayed by 15-30 cycles Zone 3: Remote backup for relay/station failures at remote terminal Reaches beyond Z2, load encroachment a consideration
14 / GE / August-3-13

Pilot-Aided Distance-Based Schemes


DUTT Direct Under-reaching Transfer Trip PUTT Permissive Under-reaching Transfer Trip POTT Permissive Over-reaching Transfer Trip Hybrid POTT Hybrid Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip DCB Directional Comparison Blocking Scheme DCUB Directional Comparison Unblocking Scheme
15 / GE / August-3-13

Direct Underreaching Transfer Trip (DUTT)


Requires only underreaching (RU) functions which overlap in reach (Zone 1). Applied with FSK channel GUARD frequency transmitted during normal conditions TRIP frequency when one RU function operates Scheme does not provide tripping for faults beyond RU reach if remote breaker is open or channel is inoperative. Dual pilot channels improve security
16 / GE / August-3-13

DUTT Scheme

Zone 1

Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

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Permissive Underreaching Transfer Trip (PUTT)


Requires both under (RU) and overreaching (RO) functions Identical to DUTT, with pilot tripping signal supervised by RO (Zone 2)

18 / GE / August-3-13

PUTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

To protect end of line Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

Rx PKP Zone 2 Zone 1


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& OR

Local Trip

Permissive Overreaching Transfer Trip (POTT)


Requires overreaching (RO) functions (Zone 2). Applied with FSK channel: GUARD frequency sent in stand-by TRIP frequency when one RO function operates No trip for external faults if pilot channel is inoperative Time-delayed tripping can be provided
20 / GE / August-3-13

POTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

Bus Line

Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

(Z1)

Tx

Zone 1 Trip Line Breakers

(Z1)

Rx AND

OR

Zone 2

t o

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Hybrid POTT
Intended for three-terminal lines and weak infeed conditions Echo feature adds security during weak infeed conditions Reverse-looking distance and oc elements used to identify external faults

22 / GE / August-3-13

Hybrid POTT
Zone 2

Zone 1 Remote Bus Line Local Bus Weak system

Zone 1

Zone 4

Zone 2

23 / GE / August-3-13

Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)


Requires overreaching (RO) tripping and blocking (B) functions ON/OFF pilot channel typically used (i.e., PLC) Transmitter is keyed to ON state when blocking function(s) operate Receipt of signal from remote end blocks tripping relays Tripping function set with Zone 2 reach or greater Blocking functions include Zone 3 reverse and lowset ground overcurrent elements
24 / GE / August-3-13

DCB Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1 Remote Bus Line Local Bus

Zone 1

Zone 2

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Directional Comparison Unblocking (DCUB)


Applied to Permissive Overreaching (POR) schemes to overcome the possibility of carrier signal attenuation or loss as a result of the fault Unblocking provided in the receiver when signal is lost: If signal is lost due to fault, at least one permissive RO functions will be picked up Unblocking logic produces short-duration TRIP signal (150-300 ms). If RO function not picked up, channel lockout occurs until GUARD signal returns
26 / GE / August-3-13

DCUB Scheme
Forward

Bus Line

Bus

Forward

(Un-Block)

Tx1

Trip Line Breakers

(Block)

Tx2

Forward

(Block)

Rx2 AND t AND o AND

AND

(Un-Block)

Rx1

Lockout

27 / GE / August-3-13

Redundancy Considerations
Redundant protection systems increase dependability of the
system: Multiple sets of protection using same protection principle and multiple pilot channels overcome individual element failure, or Multiple sets of protection using different protection principles and multiple channels protects against failure of one of the protection methods. Security can be improved using voting schemes (i.e., 2-outof-3), potentially at expense of dependability. Redundancy of instrument transformers, battery systems, trip coil circuits, etc. also need to be considered.
28 / GE / August-3-13

Single-pole Tripping
Distance relay must correctly identify a SLG fault and trip only the circuit breaker pole for the faulted phase. Autoreclosing and breaker failure functions must be initiated correctly on the fault event Security must be maintained on the healthy phases during the open pole condition and any reclosing attempt.
29 / GE / August-3-13

Out-of-Step Relaying
Out-of-step blocking relays Operate in conjunction with mho tripping relays to prevent a terminal from tripping during severe system swings & out-of-step conditions. Prevent system from separating in an indiscriminate manner. Out-of-step tripping relays Operate independently of other devices to detect out-of-step condition during the first pole slip. Initiate tripping of breakers that separate system in order to balance load with available generation on any isolated part of the system.
30 / GE / August-3-13

Power Swing Blocking


Applications: > Establish a blocking signal for stable power swings (Power Swing Blocking) > Establish a tripping signal for unstable power swings (Outof-Step Tripping) Responds to: > Positive-sequence voltage and current

31 / GE / August-3-13