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PYRAMIDS AND ACOUSTICS

ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS IN PYRAMIDS


MAYAN PYRAMIDS
BRAGG SCATTERING EFFECT PICKET FENCE EFFECT RESONANCE MACROSONIC SYNTHESIS SYNTHETIC AND NATURAL RESONATOR

ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS IN MAYAN PYRAMIDS


The Maya built monumental structures at least as far back as 600 B.C, but pyramid building reached its height in the classic maya culture that flourished roughly from 100 to 900 A.D., Stretching from modern-day Mexico to El Salvador to Honduras They all produced chirping echoes. Lubman theorizes that the ability of pyramids to recreate a sacred sound, the chirp of the quetzal, led to them popping up all over, like franchises, in the Maya world. "You had to have one. People came to centers for a spiritual experience in part," he says, comparing pyramid acoustics to medieval cathedrals designed to resonate to chanted hymns, or send glints of sunlight to worshipers through stained glass. The echo is not believed to be an artifact of reconstruction or an original design defect.

EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS

Sound is very important to forest peoples whose livelihood or very lives may depend on accurate listening. In the cloud forest where their Mayan cultures were formed, one may hear over a much greater distance than one can see.

The quetzal, is asserted to represent the "spirit of the Maya". It is shown that the Temple's very name is connected with the quetzal . It seems appropriate that the Temple of Kukulkan should echo with the spirit voice of the quetzal.
If one claps the hands in front of the Kukulcan pyramid at Chichen-Itza one receives an echo that sounds like the quetzal (kuk in maya). The tall and narrow steps of Maya pyramids tune the noise returned through an effect called Bragg scattering, each riser bouncing back small echoes that add together to create a distinctive chirp. THE QUETZAL AS THE "SPIRIT OF THE MAYA" AND THE SPIRIT OF KUKULKAN

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People sitting on the bottom steps of the pyramid also hear raindrop sounds generated by people's footsteps farther up the 100-foot-high temple pyramid.

Rain and the quetzal bird are both sacred and important to the Maya so now there is no need to search for the one and only reason why pyramids were built.
It has been suggested that the stucco that once covered the pyramids amplified sounds since it eliminated imperfections and gaps between stones. The Quetzal bird echo also occurs at other Pre-Columbian sites and Ancient Mexican ruins. PYRAMID AT TIKAL

THE CASTILLO
This structure is a temple that looks like a pyramid and is the one of the most popular sites of the Mexican Yucatan. If you stand facing the foot of the temple and shout the echo comes back as a piercing shriek. Also, a person standing on the top step can speak in a normal voice and be heard by those at ground level for some distance . This quality is also shared by another Mayan pyramid at Tikal.

BELIZE
A ceremonial site on the Guatemalan border, called Xunantunich. LAMANAI, BELIZE, IN ORANGE WALK DISTRICT

The words of a tourist When we had climbed the tall pyramid and looked down into the courtyard where people assembled to be addressed, we noticed a strange illusion. We could also observe that the people in the courtyard were talking, apparently quite loudly, but that their voices sounded muted and distant. Yet as we spoke to one another, our voices seemed amplified. A large recess in the wall of the pyramid behind us functioned as a resonator, and gave our sounds back to us with a bright, ringing quality. We could be heard quite clearly in the courtyard below. Our host suggested that this enabled one to sound larger than life and that such designs helped to maintain the mystique of the Mayan class structure. He also pointed out that the stone used in building the pyramid had resonant qualities, although the structures as we see them now are not in their finished form -they are missing the polished stucco surfaces and wood additions they were designed for. EL CASTILLO - TEMPLE OF KUKULKAN The site's most famous building is the Pyramid of the Niches
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THE GREAT BALLCOURT


The Great Ballcourt is 545 feet long and 225 feet wide overall. It has no vault, no continuity between the walls and is totally open to the sky. Each end has a raised "temple" area. A whisper from one end can be heard clearly at the other end 500 feet away and through the length and breath of the court. The sound waves are unaffected by wind direction or time of day/night. Archaeologists engaged in the reconstruction noted that the sound transmission became stronger and clearer as they proceeded. The court has no vault. It is open to the sky and has no continuity between the walls, the prescenium and the throne of the bearded man. If one stands in the center of the court, near one of its walls and claps the hands, he will hear at least nine times the echo of the clapping. Also if one yells. This phenomena seems to be unique.

ANCIENT MEXICAN BUILDINGS


There was a circle of stone on the ground in the middle of a long ball court. When you stood on it the person standing on a similar circle at the head of the court (in the king's "booth") you can converse with that person as if they were a few feet away. The volume and clarity was startling considering that the stones were far apart (like 60+ meters).

NORTHERN GUATEMALA
Two pyramids stand face to face with a football field sized court between them, and low steps and wall on either side. One could easily hear a person talking in a normal voice at the opposite end of the grass covered courtyard. The stones of the pyramid are of resonant stone when sitting on one a foot square and tapping it produces a clear short sustained sound. A large part of the pyramid seems to be made of this "limestone" as the locals call it, and the result is that as a person descends from the top of the pyramid, on the slightly over-sized steps, drop slightly , and thus create a huge gonglike sound that resonates across the courtyard and out into the surrounding area .
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The temple of the magician. If you stand at the base of this pyramid and clap the small structure at the top makes a strange chirping sound using the acoustic energy of the clapping sound

Edzna, I was standing at the top of one pyramid and my daughter on the top of another and realized that we could carry on a conversation in a perfectly normal tone of voice, not only with each other but with others standing on the ground.

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ADDITIONAL BENEFIT OF ACOUSTICAL HYPOTHESIS OF STAIRCASE DESIGN


The German poet Goethe aptly described architecture as "frozen music".

THE ACOUSTICS OF OUTDOOR STAIRCASES


Although staircases are surely a common element in design, and can contribute odd acoustical effects, the subject does not seem to have received extensive treatment in the scientific acoustical literature. Spatial periodicities are the analogs of "rhythm" in music. When periodic design elements are composed of sound reflective materials (such as stone), and if certain other conditions are met, odd echoes or other strange acoustical effects may result. Echoes are always considered undesirable elements in a "built environment". The Mayan echo, if it is indeed deliberate, would be the only exception to this "rule".

THE PICKET FENCE EFFECT


Gestalt psychology says that several factors are governing the perceptual organization no single rule will always work but all rules together will give a correct interpretation. The factors are as follows. Similaritv: elements which are similar will be grouped together. Good continuation: properties of a single source should change smoothly. Common fate: the different components of a single source "usually varies in a similar way." Belongingness: "a single component in a sound can only be assigned to one source at a time." Closure: a sound obscured by a second will be perceived as continuous even if turned off during moments of obscure, and non-acoustic clues may be used for the filling in. Figure-ground phenomenon: sound can be separated in attended and unattended streams

If the hypothesis of intentional design has merit, we are led to two striking conjectures. The Maya are the only people known to have "coded" a sound into stone. The chirped echo at this 1300year-old pyramid may be the world's oldest known sound recording!
It is fascinating to imagine the ancient Maya as the true inventors of playful soundscape ideas. Such ideas have only recently begun to be used by modern urban artists. Modern artists are creating such sonic architecture as sound parks.

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An example of an unintended tonal echo is found in the ancient ampitheater at Epidauros in the Peloponnesus (now Turkey). The reflecting feature are concrete seating banks that are periodically spaced about 1 meter apart. An impulsive sound made in the stage area gives rise to periodic reflections from the seating banks that are heard in the "orchestra". The result is an odd but clearly heard low tone (about 340 Hz, according to my calculation). It is very brief, lasting less than 50 milliseconds, (5 hundredths of a second). Such unintended tonal echoes are not uncommon in open spaces in front of wide staircases, such as libraries and other public buildings. The phenomenon is termed "picket-fence effect", a name evocative of the kind of spatially periodic feature that is responsible for the tonal echo. At least two steps are needed to produce a perceptible tone. With more steps, say 5-10, the sensation of tone is stronger. With a short staircase of only 10 steps, a tone will persists for not more than one or two hundredths of a second. Unless the stimulating noise is very short, such as a single handclap, the picket-fence tone may be imperceptible because it is "masked" by the long stimulus. Moreover, if the space is not open, echoes from other structures can mask the tone. Ideally, an open space and a very long staircase is needed to perceive this effect. The Temple of Kukulkan exhibits the most remarkable picket-fence echo. The Temple, situated in an open field and possessing wide, long staircases, seems ideal for an exhibit of this phenomenon. Picket fence echoes are heard from each of the two restored, wide staircases of 92 steps each. Equally remarkable, the tones are audible, if somewhat weaker, on the two unrestored sides.

Because the staircase is very long, the staircase echo is correspondingly longer, persisting for more than 100 milliseconds (1/10 second), more than twice as long as the tonal echo in the theater at Epidauros. (The quetzal chirp is even longer, about 200 milliseconds long, or 1/5 second.) Because of the Pyramid's high staircase, the echo exhibits an additional auditory feature. More than a tone, the echo possesses a birdlike "chirp" that moves downward in frequency. R O M A R A M N A N I

STAIRCASE AS A DIFFRACTION GRATING

An explanation for the downward chirp is easily obtained by a simple extension of the picket fence effect. This essentially amounts to a diffraction grating, familiar to physicists.
Echoes arrive first from the lower stepfaces near the observer's head level. The time between succesive echoes is proportional to the length of the step tread length, T, and the frequency is roughly f = c/T, where c = the speed of sound, about 343 m/sec. Later echoes arrive from the upper steps. The time between successive echoes gradually lengthens for the upper steps because the ray path becomes nearly parallel to the angle of staircase's rise. In the limit the time between successive echoes is proportional to the hypotenuse of the triangle consisting of the tread length and rise height. Because the hypotenuse is longer than either side of a triangle, the period of the tone is greater and the frequency is lower.

THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECHO SIMULATION


The staircase is seen as a periodically corrugated ~infinite surface, being sawtooth shaped This is only true within the interval of the physical staircase. This infinite mathematical model is matched to reality by modeling a handclap not by a truly spherical wave, but by a wave that only contains propagation directions from the emitter directly to the staircase within the angular interval [a1 ,a2] that assures impingement on the staircase and within the interval [a3 ,a4] if, in addition, reflections on the ground are considered as well. Hence, the handclap is only spherical if observed on the staircase. Whatever sound patterns are emitted to areas outside of the considered intervals is unimportant for the present study. The vectors d, h, D, and H are defined in Fig. 1. For ex and ez being unit vectors along the x, respectively, z direction, straightforward geometrical considerations result in

PREDICTED FREQUENCIES
The average tread length T was measured as 26.2 cm (10.3 inches) This gives a maximum chirp starting frequency of about 1310 Hz The average riser height was measured at 26.4 cm. This gives a hypotenuse length of 37.3 cm (14.68 inches) and a minimum chirp ending frequency of 922 Hz. The actual frequency range also depends on one's distance from the pyramid. The farther away one stands, the smaller the frequency range. The measured frequencies agree reasonably well with these simple predictions.

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Normalized recorded signal of the echo coming from the pyramid.

Normalized recorded signal produced by a Quetzal bird in the forest.

Normalized calculated direct echo coming from a delta pulse

Calculated direct echo coming from a handclap.

EXPLANATION OF THE RAINDROP EFFECT


If people are climbing the pyramid, their shoes produce sound pulses containing all frequencies. 1st order reflected sound undergoes a transition from evanescent to bulk waves. That happens at a frequency f given by

The 1st order diffracted sound travels almost parallel to the pyramids surface. Now, since that sound is bulk in nature (not evanescent) and since it has a considerable amplitude it is actually hearable for the observer seated on the lowest stair step. The observed frequency range is limited since only a limited bunch of frequencies produce sound that can reach the observers ear, which is situated at small angles from the pyramids surface. Frequencies between 920 and 1000 Hz indeed sound like the main frequency that is present in the bunch of frequencies generated by a raindrop falling in a bucket filled with water. The zero order reflection coefficient (solid line) and the 1st order reflection coefficient (dotted line) as a function of the frequency, for normal incident sound on the pyramid. The left side of the dashed line corresponds to evanescent 1st order reflected waves, while the right side corresponds to bulk 1st order reflected waves
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ACOUSTICAL EFFECTS IN EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS


RESONANT CAVITY
Driven by periodic oscillations a resonant cavity can be stimulated to its fundamental resonant frequency producing both harmonics and subharmonics. When the standing wave is driven into high amplitude the nonlinear effects couple energy from low to high-frequency modes. This increase in harmonics can create a shockwave, diminishing the quality of the resonator dramatically. Multifrequency driving of the resonant cavity has been used to increase the energy storing. If the energy is coupled to lower frequencies, or subharmonics, less acoustic dissipation is observed allowing for a more efficient system. Bednarik describes RESONANT MACROSONIC SYNTHESIS:

ACOUSTIC MATERIAL

The limestone blocks of the Orion pyramids consist of mostly calcite mineral, whose structure can be triangular and octahedral in various forms. Each of the Giza pyramids is apparently designed as the top half of an octahedron, monumental formations of calcite. Research of J. Davidovits into ancient geopolymers has demonstrated through chemical analysis that the casing stones of the Giza pyramids are synthetic, being of lower density than any quarried stone due to trapped air bubbles and consisting of 85-90% calcite with other exotic mineral constituents like opal CT, hydroxy-apatite and silico-aluminates.
CAT-scan work on the core stones have recorded hairs deeply embedded in the matrix of the stone, another clue that the pyramid blocks were cast using liquid stone, though the likelihood of later facade reconstruction is strong. Note that the synthetic stones are of high piezoelectric crystalline content.

[T]he interactions of acoustic waves at some fixed frequencies without the energy losses in the higher harmonics is of considerable interest in acoustics. Such interaction creates the possibility of direct transformation of coherent sound at the given frequency by sound of another frequency without an electro-magnetic energy source... For a region of three modes with given angular frequencies, if the sum of two of them is equal to the remaining one, the interactions of these modes can be obtained from the nonhomogenous Burgers equation for nonlinear standing waves.

There are several interesting anomalies: Rose Granite which is used in the inner chambers of the Pyramid is considered to be one of the most paramagnetic substances measured. Something paramagnetic is a body or substance that, placed in a magnetic field, possesses magnetization in direct proportion to the field strength; a substance in which the magnetic moments of the atoms are not aligned. Limestone which was used on the outer portion of the Pyramid (including the polished tura limestone casing stones) is considered to be diagmagnetic. Something that is diamagnetic has the property of being repelled by both poles of a magnet. Most substances commonly considered to be nonmagnetic, such as water, are actually diamagnetic. Think of the Limestone as an insulator and the Rose granite as a conductor. The word "Pyramid" translates to 'the fire in the middle or inner fire'. Value of Phi: - The ratio of the apothem (face slant height) to half a base side = Phi (1.618). Phi is another transcendental number like Pi which has no exact value (approximate value = 1.6181818...). The unique properties of Phi are that phi +1 = phi squared and also 1 + 1/phi = phi. The Phi ratio is the basis for the Fibonacci sequence 1,1,2,3,5,8,13.,21,34... which was not generally publicized until 1200 A.D.

PHI RATIO, GEOMETRY AND RESONANT CAVITY


The phi ratio describes the relative proportions of the three frequencies that stimulate the nonlinear standing wave and is also apparent in the modeled distribution of acoustic pressure along the resonant cavity which results. The coherent nonlinear structure was achieved through periodic stimulation of a medium of precise geometric boundaries designed to induce the interaction of three different resonant modes in the ratio of phi . This standing wave structure informs the phi geometry of the Orion pyramids, elucidated by the superimposition of the pattern onto a cross-section of the Great Pyramid taken along the North-South axis. The high-amplitude transduction of the piezoelectric limestone of the pyramids creates an electromagnetic field around the structures, the movement of electrons becoming toriodal or donut-shaped.
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EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURE

THE PYRAMID OF GIZA PLACED AS PER THE RESONANT The base length of the Great Pyramid informs the fundamental resonant tone MACROSONIC SYNTHESIS created by the structures. Each base side of the pyramids has roughly been calculated at 760, creating a fundamental frequency of about 1.5 hz when the pyramids are stimulated into high amplitude. The periodic pulsation of the pyramids operating at resonance creates a Fibonacci standing waveset centered on the 760 wavelength bounded by the base of the pyramid. The angles of the standing waves exactly correspond to the slope of the pyramids faces: in the phi angle of 51.85 degrees. This baseline frequency of 1.5 hz has been described as the Tri-thalamic entertainment frequency shown to synchronize the pulsation of the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary gland into a unified functioning. This frequency is also the lowest frequency of Schumann Resonance, thus the function of the pyramids may indeed be to shift the fundamental frequency of the Earth down from its fluctuations near 7.3 hz to the trithalamic frequency of 1.5 hz. This resonance structure is recognized as a solid-state global oscillator that functions in wavelengths of pure consciousness itself, entraining the human mind through redistribution and focusing of the global mind. Indigenous cultures across the globe recognize the Earth as a sentient being in itself, and as consciousness has a frequency that can be measured as the EEG, then the frequencies of Schumann Resonance can be understood as the vital pulse of Earth. Ancient wisdom passed on through the traditions of the Yaqui and Toltec cultures of presentday Mexico overtly describe the Earths emanations and the corresponding alignment of the emanations of humans, a notion described by modern science as the Frequency Following Response. The pineal gland contains microcrystalline calcite biomineralizations (Bacconier, Lang et al) that transduce frequencies of consciousness.
The octagonal structure of Earths consciousness is quantified in this work; the very shape of the collective unconscious to whic h sentient beings attune themselves. The Orion pyramids output likely induces a shift in the fundamental frequency of the Earth down to the lowest frequency of SR at 1.5 hz, allowing a parallel shift in the entrained human consciousness.

Yaqui knowledge keepers precisely describe this shift in the alignment of the perception of man as an awareness of previously inaudible frequencies of infrasound: [T]he portion of the emanations inside mans cocoon is in there only for awareness, and that awareness is matching that portion of the emanations with the same portion of emanations at large. They are called emanations at large because they are immense... inside mans cocoon the unknown is the emanations untouched by awareness. When the glow of awareness touches them, they become active and can be aligned with the corresponding emanations at large. Once that happens the unknown is perceived and becomes the known. (Castenada, "The Fire From Within" p 207) This process of alignment that allows a heightened perception of otherwise inaudible infrasound is clearly shown by indigenous teachings to be the key to understanding the unknown; phenomena that remain for misaligned modern humanity as "paranormal."
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As the effect is caused by the interactions of the slightly offset resonant frequencies of the upper chamber (121 hz) and the granite box (117 hz), the dimensions of both have most likely been calibrated to the heartbeat of a healthy newborn. The low human voice creates a resonance in the upper chamber that entrains a healthy biorhythm in a newborn infant. Rather than a tomb for the dead, it appears the upper chamber and granite box were designed and used as a nativity center for stabilizing the biorhythms of the mother and child during their separation at birth. A carved stone tool was found sealed in one of the ascending shafts of the mid chamber. The artifact is interpreted to be a peshesh khaf, used in ancient times in child birth.

The internal chambers of the Great Pyramid are constructed of massive rose granite blocks cut with precise right angles and perfectly planed faces. The surface of the stone is covered in a thin glaze of quartz, the main constituent of granite, which is typical of a stonecutting technique now known as thermal disaggregation. Rose granite was used in the construction of the internal chambers because of its resonant properties. The quartz matrix of the granite stones is like a hall of mirrors with billions of parallel faces reflecting energy. The effect of this encasement in granite is that the airspaces can be given harmonic dimensions to specify the wavelengths, which will resonate through the formation of standing waves. The dimensions of the upper chamber reflect a 1:2 ratio, allowing standing waves of interger multiples to store acoustic energy. Acoustical engineer J. Reid carried out acoustic experiments revealing the resonant frequency of the upper chamber to be 121 hz. Resonance in the upper chambers granite box (erroneously dubbed the "sarcophagus") was found at 117 hz.

The interaction of these slightly offset resonant frequencies was most strongly felt while inside the granite box, creating a resounding beat frequency that closely matches the human heartbeat. Reids subsequent research into human heartbeat rhythms revealed that the beats recorded in the granite box matched exactly those of newborn infants. As the heart rhythms of an individual change over the course of its development, an adults heartbeat may be entrained through the acoustic beating of the granite box to imitate the heart rate of an infant. The HeartMath Institute has shown a regulated heart rate to be crucial to the formation of a coherent electromagnetic field of the heart, and to allow intentional relaxation of the DNA helix that is associated with positive emotions. The direct correlation between the stimulated beat frequencies of the granite box and a healthy infant heartbeat suggest the chambers design purpose.

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The ascending shafts are directly aligned to the geographic North and South poles, having been specifically designed as receivers of the lowest frequencies of infrasound at 0.5 hz that align precisely to the shaft openings. The changes in angle of the oblong rectangular shafts are subtle and intriguing, affecting the propagation of sound in ways that are not yet understood. The location of the natal tool in the ascending shaft suggests a resonant function also related to the biorhythmic entrainment of a newborn infant. The dimensions of the 6 long horizontal portion of the shafts are just large enough to accommodate a newborn infant. It then seems likely that the shafts were designed to focus 0.5 hz infrasound waves upon a newborn placed in the shafts as they open into the upper chamber. The cranial augmentation observed of ancient Egyptian royalty may be a direct result of fetal gestation and natal biorhythmic entrainment at the Great Pyramid. The complete set of angles of the internal chambers and the pyramid entrance are clearly aligned as receivers to the Fibonacci network of standing waves (previous image).

The cranial volumes of the Pharoanic families were extraordinary, most notably that of Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their children. Since the unusually elongated crania have been observed in statuary depictions of even the youngest children, the assumption has been made that it was genetically related. Perhaps, in light of the new acoustical data from the Great Pyramids chambers this assumption may be confirmed and understood to be a result of the infrasonic stimulation, the advanced art of genetic enhancement. The elongated skulls of the ruling families of ancient high civilizations may have been developed through gestational entrainment techniques under the Great Pyramids magnetic umbrella.

BUST OF MERITATEN, DAUGHTER OF AKHENATON, NEFERTITI Known Ayurvedic techniques of augmenting the energetic levels of water have been associated with the vibrations of particular oils, yet the likelihood is great that the granite box in the Great Pyramids upper chamber may have been used to energize not only the water within the body of the bather (during gestation or otherwise), but perhaps was employed as a system to energize water that could be transported and consumed elsewhere.

A balanced, full-spectrum infrasound environment has been shown to stimulate both emotional relaxation and DNA helical structural relaxation, or "denaturation. As the first months after birth are well known to be developmentally influential, perhaps exposure during and after birth to the full infrasonic range may increase DNA development and a biorhythm of balanced consciousness
CRANIAL VOLUME. The volume of a human brain, otherwise known as cranial capacity, varies depending on several factors, such as age, environment, and body size. The volume is usually measured in cubic centimeters (cm3 or cc). Modern humans have cranial capacities from 950 cm3 to 1800 cm3, but the average volume of a modern human brain is 1300 cm3 to 1500 cm3.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. 2. 3. 4. Posted by: Johan Normark | November 18, 2010 Rational spirit evidence not faith Ian Lawton Orion infrasound pyramid at resonance Acoustical society of America 136th meeting lay language papers 5. Violin timbre and the picket fence-Jansson, E. V 6. A theoretical study of special acoustic effects caused by the staircase of the El Castillo pyramid at the maya ruins of Chichen-Itza in Mexico -Nico F. Declercqa) and Joris Degrieck -Rudy Briers -Oswald Leroy 7. Picket fence effect - wikipidea ROMA RAMNANI

The most advanced energetic water technologies will be fully addressed as unique discoveries have been made in association with ancient artifacts that include sacred Sanskrit symbolism, script and depictions of the Great Pyramid at Giza thousands of miles away. The ancient notion of making a temple of the body may in fact refer to the crystallization of the liquid body for the benefit of human DNA