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KEWIRAUSAHAAN, Praktek Dokter Mandiri?

dan Etika Bisnis


(Manajemen, Bisnis Kesehatan Modern)

Anwar Wardy W

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Anwar Wardy W

Business
Adalah suatu organisasi yang digerakan dimana dapat memberikan hasil yang baik atau pelayanan dan menghasilkan keuntungan

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Profits
Perbedaan diantara The difference between a businesss revenues and its expenses In business profit could be divine into: Tangible : Asset, Money, Factory, etc Intangible : Trust, Image, Goodwill, etc
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Pengusaha mandiri!!! Top 5 pengusaha Indonesia -->Nasional


1.
2. 3.

4.
5.

Keluarga Gudang Garam Keluarga Djarum Keluarga Sampoerna Keluarga Bakrie Group Salim

Lokal; Haji Kalla Sahid dll


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USAHA KECIL

D E V E L O P M E N T

ONE MAN ENTERPRISE FAMILY ENTERPRISE SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISE

MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISE


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Kerangka Kerja (Improvement)


POAC: Plan - Organizer - Action - Control Manejer mengorganisasikan :

a. Sumber daya. - Brainware - Software - Hardware - Capitalmoney b. Input. c. Proses.


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Pengelolaan Sumber Daya: Good Cost atau Bad Cost


HARTA PRODUKTIF HARTA KONSUMTIF KREATIFITS FINANSIAL Pendidikan Ketrampilan

Hobi
Keterangan: contoh 1.Rumah mewah tempat tinggal 2.Ruko fkk umj3.Rukan 08 Anwar Wardy W

Konsumsi atau Investasi


JENIS ASSET KLASIFIKASI ASSET *) KEBUTUHAN/KEINGIN AN **) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1= asset produktif 0=asset konsumtif ** Isi keterangan kebutuhan/keinginan
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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Bagaimana Manejer Menghasilkan:

a. b. c. d.

Output. Outcome. Benefit. Impact.

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Harus lebih dahulu diidentifikasi:


Output yang tidak menghasilkan output lain atau outcome. Output yang tidak menghasilkan outcome. Outcome yang tidak menghasilkan efek.
Output untuk pengukuran kinerja efektivitas adalah output yang harus menghasilkan outcome baik secara sendiri atau bersama-sama output yang lain.

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AKTIVITAS USAHA KECIL


A. -

PRODUCT PRODUCING FIRMS MANUFACTURING MINING FORESTRY FISHERY AGRICULTURE

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AKTIVITAS USAHA KECIL 2


B. PRODUCER OF PRODUCT AND SERVICE COMBINATION - WHOLESALE FIRMS - RETAIL STORE C. PROVIDER OF SERVICE (Hospital and Clinic) - SERVICE FIRMS (Health service) - FINANCE FIRMS

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ENTREPRENEUR vs

Professional

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ENTREPRENEUR

DALAM MENGHADAPI RESIKO DAN KETIDAKPASTIAN YANG BERTUJUAN UNTUK PENCAPAIAN LABA DAN PERTUMBUHAN USAHA BERDASARKAN IDENTIFIKASI PELUANG DAN MENDAYAGUNAKAN SUMBER-SUMBER SERTA MEMODALI PELUANG TERSEBUT
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KREATIVITAS SUATU BISNIS BARU

SESEORANG YANG MEMPUNYAI

Category of ProfessionalPhysician (Prof-Ethics)

Ethicists argue that some moral issues affect- ing professionals are sufficiently distinct and specialized to warrant a separate field of study. Some also argue that professionals can have special moral obligations that exceed those of ordinary individuals. To grasp the arguments for this view, it is useful first to understand what is meant by the terms profession and professional.
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What Exactly is a Profession?

A profession can be understood in terms of the attributes and requirements of a professional practice, such as "calling in which special knowledge and skill are used in...the service of mankind." (Firmage, 1991) Greenwood (1991) believes that professions are occupational fields distinguishable in terms of five characteristics: (i) systematic theory, (ii) authority, (iii) community sanction, (iv) ethical codes, and (v) a culture.

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Who is a Professional?

Professionals who comprise a given profession also tend to have certain defining attributes and requirements. Medical doctors, lawyers, accountants, etc. find themselves in situations in which their decisions and actions can have significant social effects, and have roles and responsibili- ties that exceed those of ordinary individuals. Sometimes these roles and responsibilities differentiate professionals from others.

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Pemimpin & Kepemimpinan

Pemimpin adalah pemupuk perubahan. Pemimpin adalah pengaruh Kepemimpinan adalah perilaku, bukan peran. Kekeliruan kita; menganggap pemimpin adalah atasan (kita)atas dasar jabatan; dosen, dekan, profesor. Ada di semua tingkatan organisasi. Manusia menjadi pemimpin karena perbuatannya, bukan karena gelar atau jabatan (title/atribut) yang diemban.

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Ketrampilan Pemimpin
Trampil dalam memupuk perubahan dalam organisasi pembelajaran melalui: 1. Personal Mastery

2. 3.
4. 5.

Mental Models Team Learning Systems Thinking Shared Vision

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Purpose of Professional Codes

Professional codes of ethics are often designed to motivate members of an association to behave in certain ways; KODEKI, KERSI; MAKERSI dll (codes of ethics; codes of conduct; codes of practice) Four primary functions of codes are to:

inspire guide educate discipline the members.

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CIRI-CIRI ENTREPRENEUR

MEMPUNYAI HASRAT UNTUK SELALU BERTANGGUNG JAWAB BISNIS DAN SOSIAL KOMITMEN TERHADAP TUGAS MEMILIH RESIKO YANG MODERAT MERAHASIAKAN KEMAMPUAN UNTUK SUKSES CEPAT MELIHAT PELUANG
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CIRI-CIRI ENTREPRENEUR 2

ORIENTASI KE MASA DEPAN SELALU MELIHAT KEMBALI PRESTASI MASA LALU SIKAP HAUS TERHADAP MONEY (bukan serakah) SKILL DALAM ORGANISASI TOLERANSI TERHADAP AMBISI FLEKSIBILITAS TINGGI
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CIRI-CIRI PERUSAHAAN KECIL


MANAJEMEN BERDIRI SENDIRI MODAL DISEDIAKAN OLEH SEORANG PEMILIK ATAU SEKELOMPOK KECIL DAERAH OPERASINYA LOKAL UKURAN DALAM KESELURUHAN RELATIF KECIL

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PERBEDAAN DENGAN PERUSAHAAN BESAR


PERUSAHAAN KECIL UMUMNYA DIKELOLA PEMILIK STRUKTUR ORGANISASI SEDERHANA PEMILIK MENGENAL KARYAWAN PROSENTASE KEGAGALAN PERUSAHAAN TINGGI KEKURANGAN MANAJER yang AHLI Modal JANGKA PANJANG SULIT DIPEROLEH
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PERUSAHAAN BESAR - DIKELOLA BUKAN OLEH PEMILIK - STRUKTUR ORGANISASI KOMPLEKS - PEMILIK MENGENAL SEDIKIT KARYAWAN - PROSENTASI KEGAGALAN RENDAH - BANYAK AHLI MANAJEMEN - MODAL JANGKA PANJANG RELATIF MUDAH DIPEROLEH
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KEKUATAN PERUSAHAAN KECIL


KEBEBASAN UNTUK BERTINDAK MENYESUAIKAN KEPADA KEBUTUHAN SETEMPAT PERAN SERTA DALAM MELAKUKAN USAHA/TINDAKAN

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KEKURANGAN PERUSAHAAN KECIL:


RELATIF LEMAH DALAM SPESIALISASI MODAL DALAM PENGEMBANGAN TERBATAS KARYAWAN RELATIF SULIT UNTUK MENDAPAT YANG CAKAP

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Studying vs Learning

Studying:
- akumulasi pengetahuan

Learning:
- mempraktekkan terus menerus - mastery of the way of self-improvement - 2 simbol: satu berarti belajar, lainnya berarti mempraktekkannya secara tetap.
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Enggan Belajar: Siklus Takut


RasaTakut

Kurang pengetahuan dan keahlian

Menutupi kesalahan

Tidak ada Pembelajaran baru


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FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEBERHASILAN USAHA

MENGEMBANGKAN RENCANA PERUSAHAAN KEMAMPUAN MANAJEMEN MEMENUHI KEBUTUHAN MODAL

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UNSUR UTAMA DALAM RENCANA USAHA


A. PROFIL PRIBADI - KELAYAKAN KREDIBILITAS, REFERENSIREFERENSI - RESUME TENTANG PENGALAMAN PERUSAHAAN - REFERENSI-REFERENSI PRIBADI

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UNSUR UTAMA DALAM RENCANA USAHA 2


B. PROFIL PERUSAHAAN - SEJARAH PERUSAHAAN - ANALISIS PASAR DAN PESAING - STRATEGI PERSAINGAN DAN RENCANA OPERASI - RENCANA ARUS KAS CASH FLOW - ANALISA BREAK EVENT
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UNSUR UTAMA DALAM RENCANA USAHA 3


C. PAKET PINJAMAN - JUMLAH YANG DIMINTA - JENIS PINJAMAN YANG DIMINTA - ALASAN PEMBENARAN - KETENTUAN-KETENTUAN DAN JADWAL PEMBAYARAN KEMBALI

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KEMAMPUAN MANAJEMEN

PERSONIL FASILITAS FISIK AKUNTANSI KEUANGAN PEMBELIAN PENGURUSAN BARANG DAGANGAN PENJUALAN ADVERTENSI RESIKO PENYELENGGARAAN SEHARI-HARI
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JENIS MODAL

MODAL KERJA (WORKING CAPITAL) MODAL PEMILIK (EQUITY CAPITAL) MODAL SENDIRI MODAL VENTURA (berisiko)

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SEBAB-SEBAB KEGAGALAN

STRUKTUR MODAL YANG TIDAK MEMADAI PENGGUNAAN METODA DAN PERALATAN YANG SUDAH USANG TIDAK ADANYA PERENCANAAN JANGKA PANJANG KECAKAPAN PRIBADI

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TANDA-TANDA KEGAGALAN PERUSAHAAN

PENJUALAN MENURUN (KLINIK--> Tidak ada pengunjung) PERBANDINGAN UTANG SEMAKIN TINGGI; kredit usaha macet. BIAYA OPERASI MENINGKAT PENGURANGAN DALAM MODAL KERJA KEUNTUNGAN MENURUN/ KERUGIAN MENINGKAT
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SOLUSI UNTUK MENGHINDARI KEGAGALAN


MENGURANGI BIAYA OPERASI MENINGKATKAN PENJUALAN MENINJAU KEMBALI KERUGIAN KREDIT MENGHINDARI RESIKO MEMERIKSA KEMBALI PERSEDIAAN

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THE MEANING OF ETHICS

Ethics is a set of rules that define right and wrong conduct Business ethics is the application of general ethical rules to business behavior

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JENIS ETIKA (Bisnis)


(1) ETIKA NORMATIF APA YANG SEHARUSNYA DILAKUKAN (WHAT SHOULD BE DONE) (2) ETIKA DESKRIPTIF MENGGAMBARKAN APA YANG SEBENARNYA DILAKUKAN (3) ETIKA RELATIVISME TIDAK ADA JAWABAN YANG OBSULUT BENAR DALAM PERSOALAN ETIKA (4) ETIKA NIHILIST TIDAK PILIHAN YANG BENAR > NO CHOICE IS CORRECT
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ETIKA UMUM (general ethical)


(1) ETIKA LEADERSHIP KRITERIA PEMIMPIN MASA KINI: SIFAT NABI MUHAMMAD S.A.W: - SIDIQ JUJUR - TABLIQ MEMBERU INFORMASI YANG SEBENARNYA - AMANAH TIDAK BERKHIANAT - FATONAH SEHAT, CERDAS, TANGKAS (2) ETIKA KOMUNIKASI - ETIKA KOMUNIKASI MASA - TWO STEP FLOW OF COMMUNICATION - KOMUNIKASI KONFLIK WIN-LOOSE, NO LOOSE, WIN-WIN - HAMBATAN KOMUNIKASI (3) ETIKET - TATA CARA FORMAL HUB. ANTAR MANUSIA - TATA-PERGAULAN SEHARI-HARI MAKAN, DUDUK, BERTAMU, BERPAKAIAN - JUJUR LUAR/DALAM
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Why Is Business Ethics Important?

The general public expects business to exhibit high levels of ethical performance and social responsibility
To prevent harm to society To protect business firms from abuse by unethical employees or unethical competitors
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Why Ethical Problems Occur in Business?

Personal gain Individual values in conflict with organizational goals Managers values and attitudes Competitive Pressures Cross-cultural contradictions

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Three Methods of Ethical Reasoning


METHOD CRITICAL DETERMINING FACTOR Comparing benefits and profits AN ACTION IS ETHICAL WHEN Net benefits exceed net costs LIMITATIONS Utilitarian Difficult to measure some human and social costs. Majority may disregard rights of minority Difficult to balance conflicting rights Difficult to measure benefits and costs. Lack of agreement on fair shares

Rights (Deontologi) Justice

Respecting rights

Basic human rights are respected Benefits and costs are fairly distributed

Distributing fair shares

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Social Responsibility...

an organizations obligation to maximize its positive impact on stakeholders and to minimize its negative impact includes legal, ethical, economic, and philanthropic (discretionary) dimensions

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Legal Dimension...

refers to obeying governmental laws and regulations

civil law: rights & duties of individuals and organizations


criminal law: prohibits specific actions and imposes fines and/or imprisonment as punishment for breaking the law

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Ethical Dimension...

behaviors and activities that are expected or prohibited by organizational members, the community, and society (not codified into law) standards, norms, or expectations that reflect the concern of major stakeholders

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Economic Responsibilities...

How resources for the production of goods and services are distributed within the social system Do you think consumers favor socially responsible companies or are they most enamored with companies that maximize profits?

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Pembelajaran dan Perubahan

Pembelajaran memerlukan perubahan menuju unity sistem sosial, dan kesempurnaan sistem. Tidak ada pembelajaran tanpa perubahan. Dalam pembelajaran ada potensi kegagalan. Sistem yang tidak mengenal konsep kegagalan ialah living system yang perilakunya bercirikan one-time proposition.

Tema Kristal
Yakinlah anda dapat mewujudkan perubahan dan anda akan berhasil

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Foundation principles of Corporate Social Responsibility

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The pros and cons of corporate social responsibility


Arguments for corporate social responsibility
Balances corporate power with responsibility. Discourages government regulation. Promotes long-term profits for business. Responds to changing stakeholders demands. Corrects social problems caused by business.
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Arguments against corporate social responsibility Lowers economic efficiency and profit. Imposes unequal costs among competitors. Imposes hidden costs passed on to stakeholders. Requires social skills business may lack. Places responsibility on business rather than individuals.
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Two views of corporate social responsibility


The shareholder view
The only social responsibility of business is to create shareholder wealth. Corporate management cannot decide what is in the social interest. The costs of social responsibility which do not increase the value of stock, will be passed on to consumers.

The multiple stakeholders view


All customers and employees are treated with dignity. Relationships with suppliers must be based on mutual trust. Belief in fair economic competition. Business can contribute to social reform and honor human rights.
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