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Single-Phase Controlled

Rectifiers
JM610
Electrical Engineering Department
Kota Bharu Polytechnic
Mohd Azlan bin Ashari
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SINGLE PHASE
CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
1. HALFWAVE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
2. FULLWAVE HALFCONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
3. FULLWAVE FULLY CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
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Normal rectifiers are considered as uncontrolled
rectifiers.

Once the source and load parameters are
established, the dc level of the output and power
transferred to the load are fixed quantities.

A way to control the output is to use SCR instead of
diode. Two condition must be met before SCR can
conduct:
The SCR must be forward biased (V
SCR
>0)
Current must be applied to the gate of SCR
The Half-wave Controlled Rectifier
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The simplest controlled rectifier uses a single device, such as a
thyristor, to produce variable voltage d.c. from fixed voltage a.c.
mains. The circuit arrangement is shown below
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The thyristor is turned on in the positive
half-cycle, some time after supply voltage
zero, by the application of a gate pulse
with delay angle o. In the negative half-
cycle, the thyristor is reverse biased and
cannot switch on. The larger the delay
angle, the smaller is the average load
voltage.
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Voltage waveforms
for two delay angles are shown below

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Controlled, Half-wave R load
] cos 1 [
2
) sin(
2
1
, " "
o
t
e e
t
t
o
+ =
= = =
}
s
m DC ave o
V
t d t V V V V
voltage output DC Average
t
o
t
o
e e
t
t
2
) 2 sin(
1
2
) ( )] sin( [
2
1
,
resistor, by absorbed power Average
0
2
,
2
2
+ =
=
= =
}
m
m
rms
o
rms
V
t d t V V where
R
V
R I P
rms
A gate signal is
applied at et = o,
where o is the
delay/firing angle.
R
V
R
V
I
s rms
o
rms
o
2
,
,
= =
m
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Example
Design a circuit to produce an average voltage
of 40V across 100O load resistor from a 120V
rms

60 Hz ac source. Determine the power absorbed
by the resistor and the power factor.

Briefly describe what happen if the circuit is
replaced by diode to produce the same average
output.
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Example (Cont)
Solution
rad
V
V
o
s
o
07 . 1 2 . 61
] cos 1 [
2
2 120
40
] cos 1 [
2
= =
+ =
+ =
o
o
t
o
t
In such that to achieved 40V
average voltage, the delay angle
must be
If an uncontrolled diode is used,
the average voltage would be
That means, some reducing
average resistor to the design must
be made. A series resistor or
inductor could be added to an
uncontrolled rectifier, while
controlled rectifier has advantage
of not altering the load or
introducing the losses
| |
V
V
V
m
rms
o
6 . 75
2
) 07 . 1 ( 2 sin 07 . 1
1
2
2 120
2
) 2 sin(
1
2
,
=
+ =
+ =
t t
t
o
t
o
W
R
V
P
rms
1 . 57
100
6 . 75
2 2
= = =
63 . 0
100
6 . 75
) 120 (
1 . 57
=
|
.
|

\
|
= pf
V
V
V
s
o
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) 120 ( 2
= = =
t t
m
m
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Half - Wave Controlled
Rectifier Circuit with an RL
Load

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Figure 1 : Half-wave controlled
Rectifier with RL Load
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Let vs(t) be Vm sin (et). At et =
0, the current through the
circuit is zero. As et becomes >
0, vs becomes positive. If a
diode instead of an SCR has
been used, the diode would
start conduction at et = 0. With
an SCR, the conduction does
not start till the SCR is
triggered. Let the SCR be
triggered when et = o. Then o
is called the firing angle and
the SCR continues to conduct.
When et = t, the source
becomes zero, but at this instant,
the current through the circuit is
not zero and there is some
energy stored in the inductor.
When vs becomes negative, the
current through the circuit would
not become zero suddenly
because of the inductor. The
inductor acts as a source and
keeps the SCR forward-biased till
the energy stored in the inductor
becomes zero. Let the current
through the circuit become zero
at et = | and the value of | > t.
For | < et < 2t, the current
through the circuit is zero
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With an I nductive (RL) Load
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With I nductive Load and
Freewheeling Diode
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FULL-WAVE HALF-CONTROLLED BRIDGE
RECTIFIER WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
The half-controlled is the easiest to implement since the two thyristors
can be arranged to have a common cathode.

The firing circuit can have a common train of pulses and only the
forward-biased device will switch on at the arrival of a pulse on the two
gates.
Figure 1 : Circuit Diagram
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In the positive half-cycle, T1 is turned on at delay angle
o, and current flows to the load through the path T1, load
and D1. The supply voltage then passes through zero
and reverses; since the load is resistive, T1 and D1
would turn-off.

Figure 2 : The flow of load current during +ve half cycle
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At delay angle t + o, T2 is fired, and load current flows
through T2, load and D2. Once again, the supply voltage
passes through zero, and T2 and D2 would turn-off

Figure 3 : The flowing of load current during ve half cycle
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Figure 4 : The input and output waveforms
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Average load voltage (V av)

The average load voltage is found by calculating the area under the
voltage curve and then dividing by the length of the base. For any delay
angle o, the average load voltage is given by
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In the circuit in Fig. 1, the load is replaced by a large inductance.
The assumption is that the load inductance is high enough to cause
continuous steady load current.

.


HALF-CONTROLLED BRIDGE WITH
HIGHLY INDUCTIVE LOAD
Inductive
load
Figure 5 : Half-controlled bridge rectifier with inductive load
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Operation:
In the positive half-cycle, T1 is turned on at delay angle o, and
current flows to the load through the path T1, load and D1. The
supply voltage passes through zero and reverses; if this was a
resistive load T1 would turn-off. However, due to the inductive
stored energy, the load voltage reverses in order to keep the load
current flowing, D2 is forward-biased and conducts, and clamps the
bottom of the load to virtually zero voltage. Energy stored in the load
inductance keeps load current flowing through the path of D2, T1
and the load until T2 is fired at et = ( o + t )


The flow of load current
during ( o < et < t )
The flow of load current
during ( t < et < t+o )
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At delay angle t + a, T2 is fired, T1 is reverse-biased and turns off,
and load current flows through T2, load and D2. Once again, the
supply voltage passes through zero, and load inductive energy
forward biases D1 to keep load current flowing. T1 is then fired, T2
turns off and the cycle is repeated.

.
The flow of load current during ( t + o) < et < 2t
The flow of load current during 2t < et < ( 2t + o)
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Input supply
Load voltage
Load current
Input current
Current flow due
to inductive load
Figure 6 : Waveforms
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Average load voltage
A full-wave half-controlled bridge has a supply voltage of 220V at 50Hz. The
firing angle delay o = 90
o
. Determine the values of average and rms
currents load power and power factor for a resistive load of R = 100O,
Example :
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HALF-CONTROLLED BRIDGE WITH FLYWHEEL
DIODE AND INDUCTIVE LOAD
Although the half-controlled bridge has a fly-wheel diode action built in, it
uses one of the thyristors in the fly-wheeling path. If a third diode is
used, connected directly across the inductive load, then when the load
voltage attempts to reverse, this diode is forward-biased and the
inductive stored energy circulates the load current in the closed path of
the load and third diode
Figure 7 : circuit diagram
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The advantage of this method is that at mains voltage zero the conducting
thyristor turns off instead of hanging on for fly-wheel diode action, and this
reduces the thyristor duty cycle.

The circuit arrangement shown in figure 7 and resulting waveforms are shown
in Figure 7b. It is clear from observation of the waveforms that values of
average and rms voltage and current are unaffected by the addition of the third
diode.
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Input supply
Load voltage
Load current
Input current
Current flow due
to inductive load
Figure 7b : Waveforms
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FULL-WAVE FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE
WITH RESISTIVE LOAD
During the positive half-cycle, T1 and T3 are turned on simultaneously at the delay
angle of o, and current flows to the load through the path T1, load and T3. The
supply voltage then passes through zero and reverses; since the load is resistive,
T1 and T3 would turn-off.

At delay angle of (t + a), T2 and T4 are fired simultaneously, and load current
flows through T2, load and T4. Once again, the supply voltage passes through
zero, T2 and T3 would turn off.
The waveforms are shown in figure 8. 29
Figure 8
Average load voltage
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FULL-WAVE FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE
WITH INDUCTIVE LOAD
In the positive half-cycle, T1 and T3 are turned on at delay angle o, and current
flows to the load through the path T1, load and T3. When the supply voltage
passes through zero and reverses. the stored energy in the load is regenerating
back to the supply; T1 and T3 are maintained in conduction state. Energy stored
in the load inductance keeps load current flowing through the path of T1, load
and T3 until (T2 and T4) are fired at delay angle of (t + o).
.
The flow of load current
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When T2 and T4 are fired at delay angle of (t + o), current flows to the load
through the path T2, load and T4 until T1 and T3 are fired at the next cycle.
The flow of load current
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supply voltage
Output voltage
Output current
supply current
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Average Load Voltage :
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