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NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST

Quality control method that does not damage or destroy the material or product being tested

Types of NDT
Penetration test Magnet powder test Ultrasound test X-ray test

Penetration test
To detect discontinuities/defects/flaws that are open to surface of solid and non-porous materials Types of defects Surface cracks, laps, porosity, shrinkage areas, laminations and similar discontinuities.

Types of penetrant liquid


a. Water washable penetrant b. Pop emulsion penetrant c. Dissolve washable penetrant

Penetration test method

The advantages

1. Easy to conduct
2. Economic

The disadvantages 1. Only able to trace open and surface flaws 2. Cannot trace internal test piece flaws

Magnet powder test


Purpose:Locating surface and sub-surface (not more than 10mm below the surface) cracks and discontinuities in Ferro-magnetic materials There 2 ways to conducted this test : 1. By using a horse-shoe magnet equipment 2. By passing an electric current through the test piece with a Solenoid coil for cylindrical bar (test piece)

There are 3 types of magnetic powder used for the test : a. Grey powder - Widely used because give good effect under normal lighting b. Black powder - suited for machined component and through casting process c. Red powder - suited for most surface

The advantages : a. Economic b. Simple principle of usage C. Faster in conducting the test The disadvantages : 1. Only for magnetized material (Ferro-magnetic) 2. Magnetic current has to be dispose totally from the test piece after the test 3. In need of power source usage 4. The material has to clean from any residual iron or magnetic particles After the test.

Ultrasound test
Purpose : The detection of flaws for internal or external (surface) in ferrous, non-ferrous, ceramics and plastic materials. Types of flaws : Voids, cracks, inclusions, pipe, laminations, bursts and flakes.

The sound waves travel through the test piece with some attendant loss of energy and are reflected in interfaces.The reflected beam is detected and analyzed to define the presence and location of flaws.

The Advantages : i. Can be used for metal and non-metal materials ii. Able to detect for upto 1.5m of thickness iii. Effective and reliable iv. Clean and did not contaminated the components v. Portable to anywhere vi. With high precision and sensitivity The disadvantages : i. Expensive equipment ii. In need of expertise to read the machine

X-ray test
To detect internal defects and flaws such as blow holes, piping or porosity, especially in castings The advantages : 1. Gives permanent image through the film 2. Able to work effectively for thinner part 3. High in sensitivity The disadvantages : 1. Equipment cost are expensive 2. Radiation risk are higher 3. Only can be conducted by expert

Methods 1. A film place behind the test piece 2. The x-ray radiation passed through the test piece 3. Areas having defects can be seen in the film negative after its developed 4. The parts that less dense (flaws) will show up as a darker area and more dense parts will be less dark area