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737-300/400

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT, NAVIGATION

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Slide 1 of 43

Control Display Unit (CDU)

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Slide 2 of 43

Control Display Unit (CDU)


Control Display Unit (CDU) Display: Shows Flight Management System (FMS) data pages.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

SCRATCHPAD AREA

Scratchpad: Shows messages, alpha-numeric entries or line selected data.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


1L 2L 3L 4L 5L 6L 1R 2R 3R 4R 5R 6R Line Select Keys: Push Moves data from scratchpad to selected line. Moves data from selected line to scratchpad. Selects page, procedure, or performance mode as applicable. Deletes data from selected line when DELETE is shown in scratchpad. Line select keys are identified from top to bottom (1-6) and left (L) or right (R). For example, the top key on the left-hand side is identified as 1L.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

BRT Control: Rotate Controls display brightness.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

F A I L

FAIL Light: Illuminated The Flight Management Computer (FMC) has failed.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

IRS MOTION

M S G

MSG Light: Illuminated Scratchpad message is shown. Example shown in scratchpad indicates that the IRS has automatically restarted the alignment process due to the detection of excessive motion of the aircraft.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


CDU Function Keys: Push INIT REF: Shows page for data initialization or for reference data. RTE: Shows page to input or change origin, destination or route. CLB: Shows page to view or change climb data. CRZ: Shows page to view or change cruise data. DES: Shows page to view or change descent data. DIR INTC: Shows page to modify route to fly directly from present position to any waypoint or to intercept any course to any waypoint. LEGS: Shows page to evaluate or modify lateral and vertical data; shows page to control PLAN mode display. DEP ARR: Shows page to input or change departure and arrival procedures. HOLD: Shows page to create holding patterns and show holding pattern data. PROG: Shows page to view dynamic flight and navigation data, including waypoint and destination ETAs, fuel remaining, and arrival estimates. N1 LIMIT: Shows page to view or change N1 thrust limits. FIX: Shows page to create reference point on map display. PREV PAGE: Shows previous page of related pages. NEXT PAGE: Shows next page of related pages.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

EXEC (Execute) Light: Illuminated Active data is modified, but not executed.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

EXEC (Execute) Key: Push Makes data modification(s) active. Extinguishes execute light.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

Alpha/Numeric Keys: Push Enters selected character or number in scratchpad. Slash (/) key enters / in scratchpad. Plus/Minus (+/-) key enters a - symbol in scratchpad. Subsequent pushes will alternate between + and -.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

DELETE

DEL Key: Push Enters DELETE in scratchpad. The user may now select the data to be deleted by pressing the respective line select key.

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Control Display Unit (CDU)

CLR Key: Push Clears the last scratchpad character. Clears scratchpad message.

Push and hold Clears all scratchpad data.


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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

Page Title: Subject or name of data shown on page. Example shown is the POS INIT (position initialization) page.

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

Page Number: The left number is the number of the page that is currently being viewed. The second number is the total number of related pages. This example indicates that page one of three is currently being viewed.

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

Line Title: Title of data on line below.

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

Line: Shows prompts (dashed lines or boxed), selections, options or data.

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

Box Prompts: Data input is mandatory.

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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Control Display Unit (CDU)


POS INIT
REF AIRPORT

1/3
LAST POS

Dashed Lines: Data input is optional.

N3326.1 W11200.6 ---GATE

. .
1941.0 z
GMT - MON/DY

SET IRS POSITION

07/23

< INDEX ROUTE > --------------------------------

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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FMC Alert Light


FMC P/RST (FMC Push To Reset) Alert Light: Illuminated amber The FAIL lights on both CDUs are illuminated. An alerting message exists for both CDUs. Disengage light test switch held in No. 1 or No. 2 position.

This concludes the review of the CDU. The next section will discuss the IRS panels. Click Next to continue.

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


IRS (Inertial Reference System) DISPLAY: Two windows display data for the selected Inertial Reference Unit (IRU). Selection of an IRU is made via the system display selector (SYS DSPL) Type of data displayed is normally determined by the display selector (DSPL SEL). Keyboard entry of present position or magnetic heading overrides the selected display. Last digit of each window is for a decimal place (tenths).

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


DSPL SEL (Display Selector): TEST (spring-loaded to TK/GS) All lights in data displays and on mode selector unit momentarily illuminate, followed by a ten second self-test. TK/GS Left window displays present true track (course). Right window display present ground speed (knots). PPOS Left window displays present latitude. Right window displays present longitude. WIND Left window displays present inflight true wind direction. Right window displays present inflight wind speed (knots). HDG/STS Left window displays present true heading. Right window displays any applicable maintenance status codes. During alignment, right window displays the minutes remaining until alignment is complete. (As the alignment begins, a 7 will initially be displayed. The 7 will remain in the display until time remaining is 6. Countdown will continue until time remaining is 0.)

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


BRT Control: Rotate Adjusts brightness of the data displays.

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


SYS DSPL (System Display) Selector: L Selects the left IRU for the two data displays. R Selects the right IRU for the two data displays.

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


Keyboard: Push Alpha Keys: Data displays are controlled by the keyboard when the N, S, E, W (latitude/ longitude) or H (heading) keys are pressed. Pressing an alpha key arms the keyboard for numeric entries. Numeric Keys: Permit manual entry of present position when ALIGN light is illuminated. Permit manual entry of magnetic heading when either mode selector is in ATT.

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


ENT Key: Cue lights illuminated N, S, E, W, or H entries are being keyed. Push Keyed data is entered into IRUs following completion of valid self-test for reasonableness. If reasonableness test passes, cue lights extinguish. Note: The cue lights are two small white lights located directly below the ENT.

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IRS Display Unit (ISDU)


CLR Key: Cue lights illuminated An entry (ENT) attempt has failed. Entry not accepted by IRUs.

Push Extinguishes cue lights and clears data display of any data not yet entered or accepted.
Note: The cue lights are two small white lights located directly below the CLR.

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IRS Mode Selector Unit

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IRS Mode Selector Unit


ALIGN Lights: Illuminated Steady: The related IRU is operating in the ALIGN mode, the initial ATT mode, or the shutdown cycle. Flashing: IRU alignment not complete due to IRU detection of aircraft movement, or No present position entry, or Significant difference between previous and entered positions. A significant difference is defined as more than one degree difference between lat/long entered and lat/long stored in IRU memory. Extinguished The related IRU is not operating in the ALIGN mode. With mode selector in NAV, alignment is complete and all IRU information is available. With mode selector in ATT, attitude information is available. Heading information is available following entry of initial magnetic heading.

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IRS Mode Selector Unit


ON DC Lights: Illuminated The related IRU is operating on its DC power source. AC power is not normal. If on the ground, the ground call horn (located in nose wheel well) sounds to alert the maintenance crew that a battery drain condition exists. Momentary illumination is normal during the first few seconds after initiating the alignment process. Note: If the right IRU loses power from its normal source, it will automatically receive power from its alternate source (ON DC light illuminates). Five minutes later, the right IRU will load shed to conserve battery power, and therefore lose its alignment. The chart below indicates the normal (AC) and alternate (DC) power sources for the IRUs.
Left IRU Normal Power (AC) Alternate Power (DC) AC standby bus Switched hot battery bus Right IRU Transfer bus 2 Switched hot battery bus

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IRS Mode Selector Unit


FAULT Lights: Illuminated A system fault affecting the related IRU has been detected.

Note: In order to determine exactly which type of FAULT has occurred, the maintenance crew will rotate the DSPL SEL switch to HDG/STS. This will display a number (1 thru 10) in the IRS data display. This number is then matched up against an IRS malfunction code chart.

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IRS Mode Selector Unit


DC FAIL Lights: Illuminated DC power for the related IRU is not normal. Note: If one DC FAIL light is the only light illuminated, and the other lights are extinguished, the related IRU should be operating normally on its AC power source. If both DC FAIL lights are illuminated, the switched hot battery bus is not powered, or the battery may be nearly discharged.

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IRS Mode Selector Unit


IRS Mode Selectors: OFF All electrical power is removed from the system after a 30 second shutdown cycle. ALIGN Rotating the selector from OFF to ALIGN initiates the alignment cycle. Rotating the selector from NAV to ALIGN automatically updates alignment and zeros ground speed error. NAV System enters the NAV mode after completion of the alignment cycle and entry of present position (lat/long). In the NAV mode, all IRU information is available to aircraft systems for normal operations. ATT Provides only attitude and heading information. Attitude information is invalid (attitude flag in view) until related ALIGN light is extinguished. Heading information is invalid (heading flags in view) until the actual magnetic heading is manually entered and the related ALIGN light is extinguished. Position and ground speed information is not available until the IRS is aligned on the ground. The selector must be cycled OFF before reselecting ALIGN or NAV.
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Attitude Transfer Switch


ATTITUDE Transfer Switch: BOTH ON 1 Attitude references come from IRS No. 1 (left). NORMAL Attitude references come from respective IRS (left or right). BOTH ON 2 Attitude references come from IRS No. 2 (right).

This concludes the review of the IRS panels. The remainder of the presentation will discuss the Flight Management System (FMS) and IRS in greater detail. Click Next to continue.
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Flight Management System (FMS)


The Flight Management System is comprised of the following components: Flight management computer (FMC) Autopilot/flight director system (AFDS) Autothrottle (A/T) Inertial reference system (IRS) Each of these components is an independent system and can be used independently or in various combinations. The term FMS refers to the concept of joining these independent components into one integrated system which provides continuous automatic navigation, guidance, and performance management. The integrated FMS provides centralized flight deck control of the aircrafts flight path and performance parameters. The FMC performs navigational and performance computations, as well as control and guidance commands. The FMC utilizes crew entered flight plan information, aircraft systems data, and information from the FMC navigation/performance database to calculate aircraft present position. Pitch, roll and thrust commands are also calculated by the FMC. The FMC sends these commands to the autothrottle, autopilot, and flight director in an effort to fly an optimum flight profile. See picture of FMC

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Inertial Reference Units (IRUs)


Two independent Inertial Reference Units are installed, and are located in the Electronics and Equipment bay (E&E Bay). Each IRU has three laser gyros and three accelerometers which sense angular rates and linear accelerations, respectively. The main function of each IRU is to sense and compute linear accelerations and angular turning rates about the aircrafts pitch, roll, and yaw axes. The IRUs are the aircrafts sole source of attitude and heading information (except for the standby attitude indicator and standby magnetic compass). In their normal navigation (NAV) mode, the IRUs combine with air data inputs to provide attitude (pitch, roll, yaw), heading (true & magnetic), wind data (speed & direction), acceleration, vertical speed, ground speed, track, and present position to the appropriate aircraft systems. IRU outputs are independent of external navigation aids.

See picture of IRUS

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IRU Alignment
IRU alignment consists of determining local vertical and initial heading. Both accelerometer and laser gyro inputs are used for alignment. The aircraft must remain stationary during the alignment process. The alignment computations use the basic premise that the only accelerations during alignment are due to earths gravity, and the only motion during alignment is due to earths rotation. Accelerations due to gravity are always perpendicular to the earths surface and thus define local vertical. This local vertical is used to erect the attitude data so that it is accurately referenced to vertical. Once vertical is established, the laser gyro sensed earth rate components are used to establish the heading of the aircraft. As the alignment continues, both vertical reference and heading are fine tuned for maximum accuracy.

Starting point
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IRU Alignment
The orientation of the vertical axis relative to the earths surface is based on the present position input by the pilot into the IRUs. Present position can be made at any time during the ten minute alignment period. Earth rate sensing by the laser gyros allows the IRUs to determine initial latitude. This gyro determined latitude is compared to the crew entered latitude. Crew entered longitude is compared to the last stored longitude. These comparisons must be favorable to complete the alignment period.

Starting point
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IRU Alignment
Normal alignment (between 70 12 north and 70 12 south latitudes) is initiated by rotating the IRU mode selector switches from OFF, through ALIGN, to NAV. The IRUs perform a short power test, during which the ON DC lights illuminate. When the ON DC lights extinguish and the ALIGN lights illuminate, the alignment process has begun. It is recommended that present position be entered soon after rotating the mode selector switches to NAV, but can be entered at any time during the ten minute alignment period. Present position is normally entered utilizing the FMC CDU position initialization (POS INIT) page. If the FMC CDU is not available, present position may be entered utilizing the ISDU keyboard. The IRUs will automatically enter the NAV mode after the alignment period has completed, and the aircraft may now be moved.
POS INIT
LAST POS N3326.1 W11200.6 SET IRS POSITION . .

POS INIT page

ISDU keyboard

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IRU Alignment
During through-flights with brief ground times, a 30 second quick alignment may be performed. A quick align will zero the velocity errors and level the system. Simply rotate the MSU switches from NAV to ALIGN, and back to NAV. This will result in the illumination of the ALIGN lights for 30 seconds. With the ALIGN lights illuminated, enter a present position to improve system alignment. After the 30 second re-leveling process is complete, the IRUs automatically revert to the NAV mode, and the ALIGN lights extinguish. The above sequence should only be accomplished when the aircraft is not moving. High latitude alignment (from 70 12 north to 78 15 north, and from 70 12 south to 78 15 south) require an extended alignment time. Alignment is initiated by rotating the MSU switch from OFF to ALIGN. After 17 minutes the MSU switch must be rotated to the NAV position. The IRS will then immediately enter the NAV mode. Above 78 15 north, and below 78 15 south, the IRUs cannot be accurately aligned. Magnetic variation between 73 north and 60 south is stored in each IRU memory. The data corresponding to the present position is combined with the true heading to determine magnetic heading.

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Loss of IRU Alignment


IRU alignment may be lost if: An internal fault is detected within an IRU, or If the MSU switch is moved out of the NAV position, or If there is a total loss of both AC and DC electrical power. If alignment is lost (but not electrical power) to an IRU while in flight, the NAV mode (including present position and ground speed outputs) is inoperative for the remainder of the flight. However, selecting ATT places the IRU into a reversionary mode of operation, which will eventually supply heading and attitude information. After approximately 30 seconds of un-accelerated, straight & level flight, the IRU will re-level and attitude reference should be restored. In order to restore heading information while in the ATT mode, the crew must manually enter the magnetic heading into the affected IRU. This can be done via the FMC CDU or the ISDU keyboard. Precession of up to 15 per hour can occur. Therefore, while in the ATT mode, the magnetic compass must be periodically cross-checked and an updated magnetic heading entered in to the affected IRU, as required.

PT. METRO BATAVIA Directorate of Operational

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