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MODALS

MODALS
are parts of speech used to convey many different kinds of meaning. most modals have more than meaning. They are used to convey the following meanings:
1) ability 2) possibility 3) probability 4) permission 5) advisability 6) necessity 7) requesting assistance 8) making conclusions

are also used to indicate present, past and future tenses

MODALS
Present - will Past -would may might can could shall should must

PRESENT
Father says that he will fetch us from from school. (intention)

PAST
He said that he would fetch us from school. (intention)

He says that he may fetch us from from school. (possibility)


He says that he can sing in the choir. (ability) He says that we shall sing in the choir. (obligation)

He said that he might fetch us from from school. (possibility)


He said that he could sing in the choir. (ability) He said that we should sing in the choir. (obligation)

PRESENT
I can dance Tango. (ability) May I leave the room? (permission) Shall I visit you? (invitation) I will drop by the gym. (intention) I must work out. (necessity)

PAST
Could I dance Tango? (permission) I might leave the room. (possibility) Should I visit you? (warning) I would drop by the gym. (past routine)

Meaning

Modal

Similar Expression
He is going study later. (intends to) He studies later. (as scheduled)

FUTURE TIME I will study later.

Past

He said that he would We were going to study (but we didnt) study. He would have left,but his car was not working. (He didnt leave) Shall we visit you in Lets visit her house. Why dont we visit her in her house.

INVITATION

REQUEST

Would you cook pasta Please cook pasta for us. for us. Do us a favor and cook pasta for us.

Meaning
PERMISSION

Modal
May I pass this way? Can I come in?(informal) Could I pass this way? (polite) Might I pass this way? (old formal)

Similar Expression
Do I have permission to pass this way?
Am I permitted to pass this way?

Past Ability PHYSICAL

She said we could pass this way. She can type 60 words per minute. She could type 60 words per minute. (always or multiple events) Because she was naturally efficient she could finish encoding Did we have permission? We were permitted to? She was able to run 26 miles. (single or multiple events)

Past

After working out for six hours she was able to arrange all the unfilled documents for the last three months.

papers in one sitting.

Meaning

Modal

Similar Expression

ABILITY Mental .

He is going study later. (intends to) He studies later. (as scheduled)