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PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

describes an action that has happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues to the present. This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb.
Example: Meaning:

The scientists have started studying the effect of herbal medicines on AIDS. In America, women have voted in the presidential elections since 1921.

At an indefinite time

Continues to the present

Forming Present Perfect


[ HAS/HAVE ] + [ PAST PARTICIPLE ]

Examples:
I have seen Elizabeth Taylor several times. I have never seen Elizabeth Taylor.

USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

> > > >

USE 1 >>> UNSPECIFIED TIME BEFORE NOW

Past

Present

Future

We us the Present Perfect to say that action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. We can use the Present Perfect with expressions like ever, never, once, many times, before, so far, already, and yet.

Examples:
I have seen Michael Jordan twice. I think I have met his sister before. There have been several terrorist attacks in Mindanao. Has there ever been a Famine in the U.S.? No, there has never been a famine in the U.S.?

***NOTE: The concept of UNSPECIFIED TIME may be confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 > Experience

You can Use the Present perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, I have the experience of You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples: We have been to Hong Kong. (This sentence means that the speaker has the experience of being in Hong Kong. They may have gone to Hong Kong once or several times) We have been to Hong Kong four times. (You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence) We have never been to Hong Kong. (This sentence means they have not had the experience of going to Hong Kong) I believe I have read the book.

Lloyd has studied Latin and French.

TOPIC 2 > Change over time


We often use the Present perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Examples:

English has become one of the most popular languages in Asia since the onset of the Globalization system.
The Korean Students English has really improved since they entered our College.

TOPIC 3 > Accomplishments We often use the Present perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples: She has established several fast food chains in Europe. Doctors have cured a lot of townsfolk in the remote areas of Mindanao. Scientists have discovered a cure for the viral disease.

TOPIC 4 > An Incomplete Action You are Expecting We often use the Present perfect to say that an action which we are expecting has not happened yet. Using the Present Perfect means we are still waiting for the action.
Examples:

George has not cooked our dinner yet.


Chona hasnt learned how to use the computer. Our bill has not yet arrived.

TOPIC 5 > Multiple Actions at different times


We often use the Present perfect to talk about several different actions which occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples: Father has experienced the heart attack three times.

She has had four awards and four recognitions from the board of trustees.
They have encountered the same problem in our computer system.

USE 2 >>> DURATION FROM PAST UNTIL NOW

Past

Present

Future

Present Perfect is also used to that an action started in the past an continued up to the present.
Examples:

Janette has had the flu for five days.


The performers have stayed in London for 7 months. Sheila has loved pasta since she was a kid.