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Think and imagine

“If we could shrink the earth’s population to


a village of precisely 100 people, with all the
existing human ratios remaining the same, it
would look similar to this:
57 Asians; 21 Europeans; 14 from the
western Hemisphere; 8 Africans; 52 would
be female; 48 would be male; 70 would be
non white; 30 would be white; 70 would be
non-Christian; 30 would be Christian; 89
would be heterosexual; 11 would be
homosexual;
6 people would possess 59% of the entire
world’s wealth and all 6 would be from the
United States; 80 would live in
substandard housing; 70 would be unable
to read; 50 would suffer from malnutrition;
1 would be near death; 1 would be near
birth; 1 would have a college education; 1
would own a computer.
When one considers our world from such an
incredibly compressed perspective, the
need for both tolerance and understanding
becomes glaringly apparent.”
“Never take someone for granted.
Hold every person close to your
heart because you might wake up
one day and realize that you’ve
lost a diamond while you were too
busy collecting stones.”
“If peace inspires love and love is
happiness, why are we destroying
peace?”

“What we do today reflects on what we


will do in the future.”
Assignment: Answer the following questions
directly but substantially.
2. What makes a human being different from
other created being?
3. When do we practice the Golden Mean-
moderation?
4. What is the meaning of “Know Thyself”?
5. Is the study of Philosophy relevant to your life
and to your course? How?
6. What are the roles of philosophy?
7. What is the philosophical meaning of death?
8. What is the philosophical meaning of love?
9. How is the philosophy of man related to your
work?
Man and Freedom

Man has “Free Will”. It is man’s natural


legacy…you act according to the demands
of your world.

Robert Johann says...free will is identical


with your “selfhood” and “you have it
simply by being a person.”
Freedom of Choice

It is the freedom to choose between


alternatives. Fransen call it “the capacity
to accept or refuse any activity and to do
either this or that.”
Fundamental Option

“The basic freely accepted and intended


involvement of a person as such.” Fransen

What kind of person you will be?


Are you for God or against God?
Are you for authentic or inauthentic?
A free decision, a definitive commitment of
your “wholeness toward the wholeness of
life”.
Freedom and Situatedness

Human freedom is “situated or conditioned”


-human freedom does not start with a blank
sheet;
-freedom involves “the immediate concrete
set of circumstances in which they exist
before the use of freedom.
Freedom and determinism

Determinism is the opposite of being free.


Sources of determinism 1. biological
influences, 2. social pressure, and 3. the
unconscious.
Freedom and Responsibility

“It is not right to do what you want to


do; nor is it right to do what you must
do; rather it is the right to do what you
ought to do.” Fulton Sheen on
Freedom.
Freedom is more than its corollary
responsibility.
Being responsible does not automatically
make you do responsible actions.
Knowing the rules of the school does not
prevent you from throwing your trash
anywhere.

What is genuine responsibility?


“The ability to give an account.” Johann
Meaning: “I can actually justify my actions as
truly responsible to the objective demands
of the situation.”
To respond is to answer, to commit myself.
Our neighbors: love and justice: to our
world: stewardship; and to the Absolute:
worship.
Freedom = moral responsibility
To respond is to decide your course of
action..
“At the core of human freedom lies the
phenomenon of decision.” Existentialists
“I am my liberty.” Sartre
We are really the way we act, the way we
choose to act.
Freedom always involves risk. People
change.
Human nature dynamic and evolutionary
and open.
The challenge is a never ending task.
The call to put the other and the Absolute
infront of self.
Being lovers of freedom…involves
“kagitingan”. This is the truth for us as a
people. Example in Myanmar
That the misery of the people must be
blamed on the rulers and not the people.
Simply because they do not have
freedom.
Yes they are not responsible for their
misfortunes…
True…but in a way they have also a large
part in the continuation of such disorder.
They are partly to be blame for allowing
the military junta to terrorize them, for their
loss of freedom and not doing anything…
When is a human being responsible for his
actions?
When we really value our personal identity.
When we really accept that it is our action
and will as an agent.
When we as doer are supposed to be
intelligent.
When we as doer must be a moral agent.
Man and Dialogue

Dialogue is more than two persons talking


each other.
Dominic Dubarle:
....aims at intellectual agreement- true
knowledge;
....involves philosophical, religious and
political convictions- interpersonal
relationship.
Martin Buber:
Genuine dialogue: to listen, to be
open to the world, to observe, to
be aware of everything including
flowers and animals, not just of
persons.
Faith and understanding begins when we
begin to put down the dictionary.
In dialogue it is God who speaks- one
identity, the One.
If someone speaks to us, we should
respond and this is the essence of
responsibility.
The life of dialogue is the turning towards
the other- as person. This is relationship of
the I and the Thou; it is an openness a
movement of love.
The Human being as Lover

Teilhard de Chardin
True love desires the other’s good. All
beings are attracted to what is good and is
repelled by what is bad.
Inwardness of things....interior organization-
the greatest brain.
Erich Fromm
Theory of love: the problem of human
existence is separation, alienation. The
answer is Love
Elements of love
care, responsibility, respect and
knowledge

Practice of love:
Requirements.....discipline, concentration,
patience, supreme concern.
Other qualities needed to love well are
overcoming one’s narcissism, objectivity,
humility and faith.
Gorospe, SJ
Love is mutual or reciprocal
Love must be expressed
Love is better to share/give than to
receive.
Love is creative; participative.
People in love must have something in
common... This is God.
Love is an eros-agape relationship.
desire-friendship
Salamat Po!!!!
Man and the Absolute

Limang Landas (Santo Tomas)

1. Unang landas ay nakabatay sa


pagbabago...anumang na nagbabago ay
pinagbabago ng iba. Titigil tayo sa Unang Sanhi
ng pagbabago na walang kasunod na sanhi. Ang
unang Sanhi ng pagbabago na hindi
sumasailalim sa pagbabago...ito ay kinikilala ng
lahat bilang Diyos. (The Unchanged-change)
2. Landas batay sa kalikasan ng
pagsasanhi...sanhi ng bagay-bagay sa
isang maayos na serye. Gayunpaman
man, ang serye ng sanhi ay dapat tumigil
sa isang unang sanhi. Ang pag iral ng
isang Unang Sanhi na siyang binibigyan
ng pangalang Diyos. (The Uncaused-
Cause)
3. Landas batay sa posibleng par-iral at sa
nararapat na pag-iral. Walang anumang
umiiral na, walang nagpa-iral nito; at
kinakailangang may umiiral na nararapat
ang pag-iral. Ngayon dapat aminin na
mayroong umiiral ng buong karapatan at
hindi at hindi dahil sa iba ang pag-iral niya
kundi sa sarili Niya at sa katunayan Siya
ang sanhi ng pag-iral ng lahat. (The
unmoved-mover)
4. Landas batay sa pag- aantas-antas na
mapapansin sa mga bagay sa
daigdig...Higit na mabuti, higit na tutuo,
higit na marangal. Ibat-ibang antas ng
paglapit sa isang pinakamataas...Umiiral
ang pinakamataas, pinakamabuti,
pinakamarangal. At ito ay tinatawag nating
Diyos. (The Absolute-Highest)
5. Batay sa pagkakagabay ng kalikasan.
Kilos sa isang layunin sumusunod sa
batas ng kalikasan...mabuting
patutunguhan. Ang lahat ng bagay sa
kalikasan ay pinapatnubayan patungo sa
layunin nila ng isang Umiiral na may pang-
unawa, at kinikilala natin ito bilang Diyos.
(The Most Intelligent)