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Original Title: Mechanical Working of Metals (Rolling and Forging)

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Working Processes

Mechanical

Working

Cold Working Hot Working

Done at temp < Trec Done at temp > Trec

Recrystallization temperature :

0.3 to 0.6 Tm

The Effect of Temperature on

Working Processes

Cold Working

after deformation

metal hardens

deform metal

finish

very good

dimensional tolerance

Hot Working

metal recrystallizes

after deformation

deform metal

forms SCALES at

the skin

poor dimensional

tolerance

Rolling

Process of reducing the thickness of

metals by allowing it to pass through a

pair of rotating rolls

More metal is rolled

than the total of all the

other working processes

Products of Rolling

Roll Stand

Rolls for I-beams

Two-high

mill

Two-high

Reversing mill

Three-high

mill

Types of Rolling Mills

Types of Rolling Mills

Four-high

mill

Six-high

mill

Cluster mill

(Sendzimir Mill)

Cluster or Sendzimir Mill

Planetary Mill

Rolling Sequence

Rolling Sequence

Rolling Defects

ALLIGATORING

Misaligned Rolls

Wavy Edges

Edge Cracking

Rolling Load Calculation

No friction involved

Friction involved

load

Terminologies used in Rolling

Rolling Load Analysis

h = draft = ho - hf

Vo = entry speed

Vf = exit speed

R = roll radius

= angle of bite

= angle between

entrance plane and

centerline

Ideal Rolling Load

Pressure = Load

Area

Rolling Load = Roll Pressure x Area

h R W RL

y

RL = Rolling Load

y

= flow stress (yield stress)

W = Width

R = Roll Radius

h = draft

Considerations on

Actual Rolling Load

At any point in

the arc of contact,

2 forces act on

the metal:

Pr = Rolling Load

F = Friction Load

For unaided entry: Fcos = P

r

sin

= tan

and F = Pr

Maximum Reduction Possible

R

h

h

R

h R

2

tan

= tan

( h)max =

2

R

Sample Problem

Determine the maximum reduction possible

on a piece of metal when using 500 mm

diameter rolls and during cold rolling when

= 0.1 and hot rolling when = 0.6

Determine the final height of an aluminum

sheet with initial thickness 60 mm if

subjected to cold rolling ( = 0.2) using

300 mm diameter rolls and assuming

maximum reduction (also consider 3%

elastic rebound).

Sample Problem

Observations in Actual Rolling

Assuming constant volume passing through

one point at any given time

V

roll

Vo

Vf

A B

Neutral Point

or No-Slip

point

Friction Hill

At the Neutral

Point, there is no

slipping between

the metal and the

Rolls

At the Neutral

Point, Friction is

at a maximum!

N

Actual Rolling Load

Condition

Condition

Plain Strain 1.155 < 0.5

Slipping Friction

Homogenous

Deformation

1.0 > 0.5

Sticking Friction

1/2

Plane Strain

when

Slipping Friction

is found in cold

working

Sticking Friction

is found in hot

working

'

+

2

2

1

1

h

h

h R

h R W RL

y Actual

5 >

h R

W

Sample Problem

Calculate the rolling load required to reduce

steel 600 mm wide and 30 mm thick by

20%. The roll diameter used is 800 mm,

= 0.15 and flow stress of steel is 150 MPa.

Sample Problem

Explain the Design of Cluster Mill.

Forging

The act of

shaping metal by

hammering or

pressing

Forging is done in

special molds

called "dies"

Forging Products

Dies used in Forging

Types of Forging

Press Forging

Impact (Smith)

Forging

Types of Forging

OPEN-DIE

FORGING

CLOSED-DIE

FORGING

Closed-Die Forging

Examples of Forging

UPSETTING

COGGING

SWAGING

FULLERING

EDGING

HEADING

Examples of Forging

Precision Forging

Precision Forging Operation

Forging of Bevel Gear

Forging Defects

Defects in Forging

Laps Formed in

Forged Metal

Calculation of Forging Load

UPSET FORGING

P

Ideal vs Actual

HOMOGENOUS

DEFORMATION

NONHOMOGENOUS

DEFORMATION

Nonhomogenous Deformation

BARRELING

Grain Texture in Forged Metal

Effect of Friction on Forging

Pressure

Pressure builds-up at

the center creating a

pressure hill!

Effect of Friction on Forging

Load

The build-up of

pressure also creates

a Friction Hill

-Forging Load Calculation-

The SLAB METHOD

ASSUME PLANE STRAIN (WIDTH IS CONSTANT)

b = tool bite

Equilibrium of forces in the horizontal direction:

Analysis of Stresses using

Slab Method

( ) 0 2 + + h dx h d

x y x x

0

2

+ dx

h

d

y

x

Since both

x

and

y

are unknown, another equation must be

obtained using yield criteria; specifically, the distortion-energy

criterion for plane strain is used.

Y Y

y x

3

2

Hence

y x

d d

and

The two equations for the stresses

can now be solved:

( ) h x a

y

e Y p

/ 2

h x

y

y

y

Ce dx

h

d

/ 2

2

The value of the constant, C, is found

using the boundary conditions. At x=a,

x=0

and

y=

Y`

h a

e Y C

/ 2

conditions. At x=a,

x=0

and

y=

Y`. The pressure is then

Analysis of Stresses using

Slab Method

Simplification of Forging

Pressure Equation

( ) h x a

y

e Y p

/ 2

]

) ( 2

1 [ '

h

x a

Y p

y

+

Sample Problems

A copper slab was upset to give a final

dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If

the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the

coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the

Forging Pressure at the following points on

the billet:

i. At the middle

ii. At the ends

iii.(1/3)a distance from the middle

P

The average pressure can

be approximated from the

mean of the maximum and

the minimum pressure

,

_

h

a

Y p

avg

1

The forging load, F, is

( )( ) ( ) width a p F

avg

2

Average Forging Pressure, P

avg

Reminders on P and P

avg

,

_

h

a

Y p

avg

1 ]

) ( 2

1 [ '

h

x a

Y p

y

+

Condition Flow

Stress

Condition

Plane

Strain

Y = 1.155 < 0.5

Slipping Friction

Homogenous

Deformation

Y > 0.5

Sticking Friction

1/2

Plane Strain W/b > 4

when

Slipping Friction

is found in cold

working

Sticking Friction

is found in hot

working

Sample Problems

A copper slab was upset to give a final

dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If

the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the

coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the

average forging pressure of this process.

P

Sample Problem

Determine the Forging Load required to

reduce the thickness of half of a steel billet

100x40x10 mm (LxWxH) by 40%

(assume plane strain). Assume that the

yield stress of steel is 240 MPa and =

0.65.

F

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