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Rolling and Forging

Mechanical Working of Metals


Working Processes
Mechanical
Working
Cold Working Hot Working
Done at temp < Trec Done at temp > Trec
Recrystallization temperature :

temperature at which recrystallization occurs

0.3 to 0.6 Tm
The Effect of Temperature on
Working Processes
Cold Working

metal strain hardens


after deformation

metal hardens

needs high stress to


deform metal

very good surface


finish

very good
dimensional tolerance
Hot Working

metal recrystallizes
after deformation

metal stays soft

needs little stress to


deform metal

forms SCALES at
the skin

poor dimensional
tolerance
Rolling
Process of reducing the thickness of
metals by allowing it to pass through a
pair of rotating rolls
More metal is rolled
than the total of all the
other working processes
Products of Rolling
Roll Stand
Rolls for I-beams
Two-high
mill
Two-high
Reversing mill
Three-high
mill
Types of Rolling Mills
Types of Rolling Mills
Four-high
mill
Six-high
mill
Cluster mill
(Sendzimir Mill)
Cluster or Sendzimir Mill
Planetary Mill
Rolling Sequence
Rolling Sequence
Rolling Defects
ALLIGATORING
Misaligned Rolls
Wavy Edges
Edge Cracking
Rolling Load Calculation

Ideal Rolling Load

No friction involved

Actual Rolling Load

Friction involved

Friction normally increases the required


load
Terminologies used in Rolling
Rolling Load Analysis
h = draft = ho - hf
Vo = entry speed
Vf = exit speed
R = roll radius

= angle of bite
= angle between
entrance plane and
centerline
Ideal Rolling Load
Pressure = Load
Area
Rolling Load = Roll Pressure x Area
h R W RL
y

RL = Rolling Load

y
= flow stress (yield stress)
W = Width
R = Roll Radius
h = draft
Considerations on
Actual Rolling Load
At any point in
the arc of contact,
2 forces act on
the metal:
Pr = Rolling Load
F = Friction Load
For unaided entry: Fcos = P
r
sin
= tan
and F = Pr
Maximum Reduction Possible
R
h
h
R
h R

2
tan
= tan
( h)max =
2
R
Sample Problem
Determine the maximum reduction possible
on a piece of metal when using 500 mm
diameter rolls and during cold rolling when
= 0.1 and hot rolling when = 0.6
Determine the final height of an aluminum
sheet with initial thickness 60 mm if
subjected to cold rolling ( = 0.2) using
300 mm diameter rolls and assuming
maximum reduction (also consider 3%
elastic rebound).
Sample Problem
Observations in Actual Rolling

Exit speed, Vf > Entry speed, Vo


Assuming constant volume passing through
one point at any given time
V
roll
Vo
Vf
A B
Neutral Point
or No-Slip
point
Friction Hill
At the Neutral
Point, there is no
slipping between
the metal and the
Rolls
At the Neutral
Point, Friction is
at a maximum!
N
Actual Rolling Load
Condition

Condition

Plain Strain 1.155 < 0.5
Slipping Friction

Homogenous
Deformation
1.0 > 0.5
Sticking Friction
1/2
Plane Strain
when
Slipping Friction
is found in cold
working
Sticking Friction
is found in hot
working

'

+
2
2
1
1
h
h
h R
h R W RL
y Actual


5 >
h R
W
Sample Problem
Calculate the rolling load required to reduce
steel 600 mm wide and 30 mm thick by
20%. The roll diameter used is 800 mm,
= 0.15 and flow stress of steel is 150 MPa.
Sample Problem
Explain the Design of Cluster Mill.
Forging
The act of
shaping metal by
hammering or
pressing
Forging is done in
special molds
called "dies"
Forging Products
Dies used in Forging
Types of Forging
Press Forging
Impact (Smith)
Forging
Types of Forging
OPEN-DIE
FORGING
CLOSED-DIE
FORGING
Closed-Die Forging
Examples of Forging
UPSETTING
COGGING
SWAGING
FULLERING
EDGING
HEADING
Examples of Forging
Precision Forging
Precision Forging Operation
Forging of Bevel Gear
Forging Defects
Defects in Forging
Laps Formed in
Forged Metal
Calculation of Forging Load
UPSET FORGING
P
Ideal vs Actual
HOMOGENOUS
DEFORMATION
NONHOMOGENOUS
DEFORMATION
Nonhomogenous Deformation
BARRELING
Grain Texture in Forged Metal
Effect of Friction on Forging
Pressure
Pressure builds-up at
the center creating a
pressure hill!
Effect of Friction on Forging
Load
The build-up of
pressure also creates
a Friction Hill
-Forging Load Calculation-
The SLAB METHOD
ASSUME PLANE STRAIN (WIDTH IS CONSTANT)
b = tool bite
Equilibrium of forces in the horizontal direction:
Analysis of Stresses using
Slab Method
( ) 0 2 + + h dx h d
x y x x

0
2
+ dx
h
d
y
x

Since both
x
and
y
are unknown, another equation must be
obtained using yield criteria; specifically, the distortion-energy
criterion for plane strain is used.
Y Y
y x


3
2

Hence
y x
d d
and
The two equations for the stresses
can now be solved:
( ) h x a
y
e Y p
/ 2

h x
y
y
y
Ce dx
h
d
/ 2

2


The value of the constant, C, is found
using the boundary conditions. At x=a,

x=0
and
y=
Y`
h a
e Y C
/ 2

The value of the constant, C, is found using the boundary


conditions. At x=a,
x=0
and
y=
Y`. The pressure is then
Analysis of Stresses using
Slab Method
Simplification of Forging
Pressure Equation
( ) h x a
y
e Y p
/ 2

If x<1 then exp(x ) ~ (1 + x)


]
) ( 2
1 [ '
h
x a
Y p
y

+

Y = 1.155Y When > 0.5 use = 0.5


Sample Problems
A copper slab was upset to give a final
dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If
the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the
coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the
Forging Pressure at the following points on
the billet:
i. At the middle
ii. At the ends
iii.(1/3)a distance from the middle
P
The average pressure can
be approximated from the
mean of the maximum and
the minimum pressure

,
_

h
a
Y p
avg

1
The forging load, F, is
( )( ) ( ) width a p F
avg
2
Average Forging Pressure, P
avg
Reminders on P and P
avg

,
_

h
a
Y p
avg

1 ]
) ( 2
1 [ '
h
x a
Y p
y

+

Condition Flow
Stress
Condition

Plane
Strain
Y = 1.155 < 0.5
Slipping Friction

Homogenous
Deformation
Y > 0.5
Sticking Friction
1/2
Plane Strain W/b > 4
when
Slipping Friction
is found in cold
working
Sticking Friction
is found in hot
working
Sample Problems
A copper slab was upset to give a final
dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If
the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the
coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the
average forging pressure of this process.
P
Sample Problem
Determine the Forging Load required to
reduce the thickness of half of a steel billet
100x40x10 mm (LxWxH) by 40%
(assume plane strain). Assume that the
yield stress of steel is 240 MPa and =
0.65.
F