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BIOFUELS

Introduction

Biofuel is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Two Main Biofuels are Bioethanol & Biodiesel. The world's largest bioethanol producers are United States and Brazil. The world's largest biodiesel producer is the European Union. Biofuels provides 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport.

Categories of Biofuels
1. First generation biofuels. a. Bioalcohols: Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol derived from wheat, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, molasses and any sugar or starch. b. Biodiesel: Biodiesel derived from animal fats, vegetable oils, soy, rapeseed, jatropha, mahua, mustard, flax, sunflower, palm oil, algae etc. using transesterification. c. Green Diesel: Derived from a variety of oils including canola, algae, jatropha and salicornia in addition to tallow using fractional distillation. d. Vegetable oil: Used Vegetable Oil can be processed into Biodiesel and other fuels.

e. Bioethers: Are oxygenated fuels and are cost-effective compounds that act as octane rating enhancers. f. Biogas: Biogas is methane produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by anaerobes. g. Syngas: A mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other hydrocarbons. h. Solid biofuels: Includes wood, sawdust, grass trimmings, domestic refuse, charcoal, agricultural waste, non-food energy crops, and dried manure. 2. Second generation biofuels. Second generation biofuels are under development such as Cellulosic ethanol, Algae fuel, biohydrogen, biomethanol, DMF, BioDME, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, biohydrogen diesel, mixed alcohols and wood diesel.

Issues with Biofuels Production and Use

Moderating oil prices. The "food Vs. fuel" debate. Poverty reduction potential. Carbon emissions levels. Sustainable biofuel production.

Deforestation and soil erosion.


Loss of biodiversity. Impact on water resources. Energy balance and efficiency.

Conclusion

Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies. Most Biofuels produce more greenhouse gases than the Fossil fuels they replace.

Biofuels made from waste biomass or from biomass grown on abandoned agricultural lands incur little to no carbon debt.
Biofuels are the Fuels For Future.

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