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PAINT BASICS AND CORROSION IN METAL AIA103

Basic Composition of Paint

Solvents (Liquids) Pigments

Additives

Resins (Binder)

Prime Pigments
Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)
provides excellent hiding power and whiteness available as a solid (powder) or liquid (slurry)

Zinc Oxide
controls mildew resists ultra-violet light resists yellowing
Titanium dioxide is the world's primary pigment for providing whiteness, brightness and opacity.

Resins
Types: Latex, Alkyd, Epoxy, Polyurethane Binds or glues ingredients (pigments and additives) of paint together Resin provides adhesion to the substrate Resin provides durability & resistance properties:
U-V resistance Moisture resistance Chemical resistance Stain resistance Fade resistance Chalk resistance Block resistance

Gloss/Sheen Levels
Gloss or Sheen of paint refers to reflectivity or how shiny the dry paint film is.
There is lack of standards and confusion in the paint industry related to gloss or sheen levels. Gloss is measured at 60 for flat to gloss ranges. Sheen is measures at 85 between flat to eggshell Some paint manufacturers use different terms to define products between flat and semi-gloss: silk, suede, satin, velvet, eggshell, low sheen, low luster, pearl, etc.

Gloss/Sheen Levels
Term
Flat Velvet/Low Luster Eggshell Low Sheen Semi-Gloss Gloss

Gloss @ 60
0-5 5-10 10-20 20-30 55-70 75+

Sheen @ 85
0-5 5-15 15-25

Alkyd Resin Technology


ALKYD (Oil-Based)

A synthetic resin made by reacting alcohols and fatty acids Soya bean, linseed, tung-oil oil commonly used Benefits of alkyds:

-Superior brushing characteristics -Abrasion resistance -Excellent flow and leveling -Good adhesion -Used in rust preventative paint

Alkyds have limited availability and use in California.

Latex Resin Technology


LATEX (water-based)
Synthetic polymers Main resins

100% Acrylic
Styrene Acrylic Vinyl-Acrylic Acrylic Copolymer Vinyl Acetate Ethylene

Latex Resin Technology


QUALITY Latex paint benefits include:
* Ease of application * Yellowing resistance * Chalk resistance * Washability * Good flow & leveling * Excellent adhesion * Improved adhesion * Low odor * Color retention * Gloss retention * Durability * Flexibility * Scrub resistance * Water clean-up

Acrylic vs. Alkyd Paints


These paints have been exposed to the elements for 46 years. Over that time, the PVA (and the alkyd) paints have disintegrated. The 100% acrylic paint remains in remarkably good shape. The paint film is essentially intact, and, while it has chalked and faded, it retains its original green color.

Top left: Alkyd paint Top right: Vinyl-Acrylic paint Bottom left: Alkyd paint Bottom right: 100% acrylic paint

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Acrylic vs. Alkyd Paints


The paint on the left half of each board is acrylic, the paint on the right half, an alkyd. The colors of the paints were identical when applied. After 15 years of weathering, the appearance of the alkyds has changed dramatically.

All have lost gloss, faded, and chalked. The acrylic paints, in contrast, have proven remarkably durable with good color retention.

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Premature Coating Failure


DEFINITION:
The deterioration of the coating system, or corrosion of the coated surface, more rapidly than would normally be expected under the service conditions.

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Corrosion
Simply put, corrosion is created when two dissimilar metals at atomic levels come into contact with each other and create a chemical reaction. The new compound is called oxide. In iron it is called Iron oxide. In aluminum, aluminum oxide and in copper, copper oxide. These metals will not rust or corrode unless a conductor between the two metals or atoms is present. Water or oxygen in contact with the metal for a longer period of time is normally the conductor that starts the rusting or corrosion process. Salts in the water will accelerate the process.

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White Rust

Galvanized Metal

Pure water (rain, dew, condensation) contain no dissolved salts or minerals. Pure water will react with zinc hydroxide quickly to create white rust.

Acid or acid rain, will accelerate the deterioration of the zinc finish.
Passivators are a coating applied at time of manufacture to protect the zinc.

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Causes Of Paint Film Failures (New )


Faulty Products 2 - 5% Unforeseen Circumstance 10-15%

Improper Specification 25-30%


Improper Prep/Application 45-55%

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THERE ARE TWO (2) MAJOR CAUSES FOR IMPROPER COATING SPECIFICATIONS

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1. Inadequate or incomplete project information 2. Lack of product knowledge

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PROJECT INFORMATION
NEEDED.

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CUSTOMER NEEDS DETERMINE COATING SYSTEM


EVALUATE THE ENVIRONMENT

DETERMINE SURFACE PREPARATION

EVALUATE SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

EVALUATE EXISTING SURFACE CONDITIONS

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What are the Goals of Surface Preparation?


To provide a surface suitable for painting by:
Removing contamination Providing a surface profile Removing or smoothing irregularities (pits, projections, sharp edges)

Removing tightly bound mill scale & rust

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What Surfaces Require Preparation?


Iron and Steel Galvanized Metal Aluminum Copper Miscellaneous metals

Pre-Coated Metal Siding


Previously Painted

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CORROSION !
HOW MUCH ?

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Results of Pin Hole Rusting of the Primer

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What is the Environment?


Type P Type M Type C or Type A

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Type P: Protected Architectural

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Type P: Protected Architectural


Not subject to chemical contaminants Normal humidity range Normal industrial interior Corrosion of steel or galvanized surfaces negligible

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Type M: Moderate

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Type M: Moderate
Exterior weathering Normal industrial atmosphere Moderate concentrations of chemical fumes Corrosion of steel < 3 mils / year and galvanized substrates negligible Concentrations of chemical interior light to moderate fumes without humidity

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Type C: Corrosive

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Type C: Corrosive
Moderately aggressive chemical fumes, mists or dust Corrosion of steel 3 - 6 mils / year and galvanized substrates < 1 mil per year Adjacent to Type A: but at least 30 yards away

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Type A: Aggressively Corrosive

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Type A: Aggressively Corrosive

Immersion service
Excessive exposure to aggressive chemical fumes, mists dusts or contaminates Corrosion of steel > 6 mils / year and galvanized substrates > 1 mil per year Usually confined to an area within 30 yards from corrosion source

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Application
Apply the coating system using one manufacturer

Apply according to the manufacturers recommendations


Apply to the Dry Film Thickness (DFT) as stated by the manufacturer Recoat within the window specified by the manufacturer The finish system shall be a solid uniform finish free of voids and pinholes.

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Factors Affecting Coating Performance


Protection Structural Design (We cant control) Coating Selection Surface Preparation

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A Poor Design

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Other Design Considerations


Surfaces should be smooth (e.g. welds) Welding preferred to riveting All surfaces should be well drained Stiffening members should be on the outside surface of tank or vessel

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THANK YOU
PROVIDER J476