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Taking care of trees in an urban setting

Joe Zeleznik

Main Topics

Main Topics
Planting Maintenance Death

Planting

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place
Distance to buildings Height to overhead lines or street lights Fire hydrants Distance to corner (sight) Rooting volume Soil type

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types
Bare root Balled-and-burlap (B&B) Potted Container Grown Machine planted

Bare-root stock

Balled & Burlap Balled in Burlap B&B

Container-grown

Potted

Tree movers (tree spades)

Robert L. Anderson, USDA Forest Service www.forestryimages.org

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting Water!

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting Water!
Settle the tree in and remove air pockets

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting Water!
Settle the tree in and remove air pockets 1 caliper ~3 gallons/day 2 caliper ~6 gallons/day

Note berm to keep water around tree

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting
Depth

Keep root collar at the ground line

Keep root collar at the ground line

Planted too deep

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting
Depth Circling (girdling) roots

Girdling roots especially prevalent with potted and container-grown trees

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting
Depth Circling (girdling) roots Staking for windfirmness

Natural windfirmness
Roots

Natural windfirmness
Roots
Taper

Natural windfirmness
Roots
Taper
High taper: Windfirm

Low taper: Not windfirm

Staking problems
1. Too high No more than ~1/4 to 1/3 of total height

Staking problems
1. Too high No more than ~1/4 to 1/3 of total height
2. Too tight cradle the trunk, dont circle it Use some kind of strap, not wire

Staking problems
1. Too high No more than ~1/4 to 1/3 of total height
2. Too tight cradle the trunk, dont circle it Use some kind of strap, not wire

3. Too long no more than two years

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting
Depth Circling (girdling) roots Staking Mulching

Goals of mulching

Goals of mulching
Decrease weed competition

Goals of mulching
Decrease weed competition Increase available water

Goals of mulching
Decrease weed competition Increase available water Reduce potential mower damage

Goals of mulching
Decrease weed competition Increase available water Reduce potential mower damage Make it look pretty!

Properly mulched trees

Mulch volcano!

Dont pile against trunk

Planting
Arbor Day First Friday in May Right tree for the right place Stock types Planting
Depth Circling (girdling) roots Staking Mulching Fertilizing and amendments

Maintenance

Maintenance
Pruning

Maintenance
Pruning
Why?
Remove dead, dying or diseased branches Promote strong branch unions (U-shaped) Improve line-of-sight Control plant size and shape (branch location) Control flowering and fruiting (horticulture)

Tight crotch (V-shaped)

Low strength
Prune when small

Insert picture of line-of-sight pruning needed

Maintenance
Pruning
Why? Types of cuts
Heading

Maintenance
Pruning
Why? Types of cuts
Heading Thinning

Insert picture of a tree with good branch structure

Prune at Branch collar A-B

No flush cuts C-D

Prune at Branch collar A-B

Incorrect

Correct

Show the order of cutting of the branch

Three-cut method for larger limbs

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing
Determine the need

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing
Determine the need
Symptoms

Nitrogen deficiency uniform yellowing of leaves, from the bottom upwards

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company
www.forestryimages.org

Potassium deficiency

Marginal chlorosis, then necrosis

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company Slide Set, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company www.forestryimages.org

Iron chlorosis

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing
For iron chlorosis, trying using chelated iron, deep drilled into the soil

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing Watering infrequent, deep watering, at drip line and further out

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing Watering infrequent, deep watering Insects and diseases

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing Watering infrequent, deep watering Insects and diseases
Monitoring!

Maintenance
Pruning Fertilizing Watering infrequent, deep watering Insects and diseases
Monitoring! Diagnosis
NDSU Extension publications
http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/trees.htm

NDSU Extension Diagnostic Lab

Death

Death
Causes:

Death
Causes:
Too much/too little water

Death
Causes:
Too much/too little water Physical damage (human-caused or environmental)

Death
Causes:
Too much/too little water Physical damage (human-caused or environmental) Insects and diseases (combining with damage)

Death
Causes Dutch Elm Disease ...

Questions?