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# Chapter 6 Vector analysis ( )

## Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas

Lecture 18 Basic vector analysis
1. Introduction
Vector function, Vector calculus, ex. Gausss law
2. Application of vector multiplication ( )
z z y y x x
B A B A B A AB B A + + = = u cos

u sin , AB B A
B B B
A A A
k j i
B A
z y x
z y x
= =

B A

B A

a) Work
r d F dW
d F Fd W

=
= = u cos
b) Torque F r

= t
r v

=e
v

u sin r
r

u
e

c) Angular velocity
1) Dot product
2) Cross product
- Example
1) Triple scalar product ( )
3. Triple products ()
z y x
z y x
z y x
C C C
B B B
A A A
C B A = ) (

cf. volume of unit cell for reciprocal vectors
3 2 1
3 2
3
3 2 1
1 3
2
3 2 1
3 2
1
2 , 2 , 2
a a a
a a
b
a a a
a a
b
a a a
a a
b

=

=

= t t t
Volume of the parallelepipe
| cos A height =
B C A
B A C
C B A C B A

=
=
=
) (
) (
) ( ) (
z y x
z y x
z y x
C C C
B B B
A A A
C B A = ) (

) ( ) ( C B A C B A

So, it does not matter where the dot and cross are.
- An interchange of rows changes just the sign of a determinant.
) ( C B A

C b B a C B A

+ = ) (
C B A B C A

) ( ) ( =
some vector in the plane of B and C
2) Triple vector product ( )
Prove this!
(Vector equation is true independently of the coordinate system.)
k j i
j i
i
z y x
y x
x
A A A A
C C C
B B
+ + =
+ =
=

## 3) Application of the triple scalar product

Torque
F r

= t
This question is in one special case, namely when r and F
are in a plane perpendicular to the axis.
( ) | |n F r n

= t
4) Application of the triple vector product
v

u sin r
r

u
e

) ( r r m
v r m
p r L

=
=
=
e
Angular momentum
Centripetal acceleration
) ( r a

= e e
4. Differentiation of vectors ( )
) (
z y x
A A A A + + =

k j i
dt
dA
dt
dA
dt
dA
dt
A d
z
y
x
+ + =

Example 1.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
,
,
dt
z d
dt
y d
dt
x d
dt
r d
dt
v d
a
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
dt
r d
v
z y x r
k j i
k j i
k j i
+ + = = =
+ + = =
+ + =

1) Differentiation of a vector
) order! of (careful ) (
, ) (
, ) (
B
dt
A d
dt
B d
A B A
dt
d
B
dt
A d
dt
B d
A B A
dt
d
dt
A d
a A
dt
da
A a
dt
d

+ =
+ =
+ =
2) Differentiation of product
Example 2. Motion of a particle in a circle at constant speed
.
.,
2
2
const v v v
const r r r
= =
= =

Differentiating the above equations,
0 or 0 2
, 0 or 0 2
= =
= =
a v
dt
v d
v
v r
dt
r d
r

## two vectors are perpendicular

r
v
a
a v v r v a r
v a r
v v a r
v r
2
2
2
, 0 & 0
0 this, ating Differenti
, 0
=
= = =
=
= +
=

3) Other coordinates (e.g., polar)
coord. polar ) , (
coord. r rectangula ) , (
r
e e
j i

: ) , ( j i
: ) , (
r
e e
constant in magnitude and direction
constant in magnitude, but
directions changes
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
j i e
j i e

r
+ =
+ =
. sin cos
, cos sin
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
u u
u
u
u
u u
u
u
u
r

r
e j i
e
e j i
e
= =
= + =
Example 3. ? , = + =
dt
A d
A A A
r

r
e e
u
.
dt
d
A
dt
dA
dt
d
A
dt
dA
dt
A d
dt
d
A
dt
dA
dt
d
A
dt
dA
dt
A d
r
r
r
r
u u
u
u
u
u
r r

r
r
e e e e
e
e
e
e
+ + =
+ + + =

## Chapter 6 Vector analysis

Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas
5. Fields ()
Field: region + the value of physical quantity in the region
ex) electric field, gravitational field, magnetic field
6. Directional derivative: gradient ( ; )
) , , ( z y x T
s T A A for
The change of temperature with distance depends on
the direction. directional derivative
function scalar : ) , , ( z y x |
u
k j i
V =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= = V
|
|
| | |
| |
ds
d
z y x
(directional derivative for u: directional unit vector)
ds
dT
1) definition of directional derivative
Example 1. Find the directional derivative
) 1 , 2 , 2 ( direction
(1,2,-1) at
2
=
+ =
A
xz y x

|
) 1 , 2 , 2 (
3
1
= =
A
A

u
3
5
) 1 , 1 , 3 ( ) 1 , 2 , 1 (
, ) 2 (
2
= V
= V
+
c
c
+ + =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
u
k j i k j i
|
|
| | | |
| x
y
x z xy
z y x
2) Meaning of gradient : along it the change (slope)
is fastest (steepest).
3) Relation between scalar function and gradient
The vector grad.| is perpendicular to the surface |=const.
u V = =
A
A
=
A
A
= A
A
|
|
|
|
0
s
lim
0
s
, 0
0 s
Example 3. surface x^3y^2z=12. find the tangent plane and normal line at (1,-2,3)
k j i k j i 4 12 36 2 3
2 3 3 2 2
2 3
+ = + + = V
=
y x yz x z y x w
z y x w
1
3
3
2
9
1
, 0 ) 3 ( ) 2 ( 3 ) 1 ( 9

+
=

= + +
z y x
x y x
4) other coordinates (e.g., polar)
u
| | | |
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
= V
r r y x
1
r
e e j i
cf. Cylindrical & Spherical coord.
r
sin
1

1

| u u c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
T
r
T
r r
T
T
z r
1

z
T T
r s
T
T
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
|
cylindrical
spherical
7. Some other expressions involving grad. ( )
z y x z y x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
| | |
| | k j i k j i
k j i
) (
1) vector operator
2) divergence of V
z
V
y
V
x
V
V V V
z y x
V V
z
y
x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=

c
c
c
c
c
c
= = V ) , , ( ) , , ( div

3) curl of V
z y x
z y x
V V V
z y x
V V V
z y x
V V
c
c
c
c
c
c
=

c
c
c
c
c
c
= = V
k j i
) , , ( ) , , ( curl

V
4) Laplacian
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
) , , ( ) , , (
z y x
z y x z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
=
= V V = V
| | |
| | |
| | | div
conduction heat of equation or equation diffusion the is
1
equation. wave the is
1
equation. Laplace' is 0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
t a
t a
c
c
= V
c
c
= V
= V
|
|
|
|
|
5) and etc.
V V
V V V

2
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
V V V =
V V V V = V V
) ( ) ( V V V

V + V = V | | |
Chapter 6 Vector analysis
Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas
Lecture 20 Line integral & Greens theorem
8. Line integrals ()
integrating along a given curve.
only one independent variable!
1) definition
}
r F d
Example 1. F=(xy)i-(y
2
)j, find the work from (0,0) to (2,1)
) (
2
2
}
=
=
+ =
=
dy y xydx W
dy y xydx r d F
dy dx r d
r d F dW

j i
path 1 (straight line)
dx dy x y
2
1
,
2
1
= = 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
2
2
0
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
dx x xdx x dy y xydx W
path 2 (parabola)
xdx dy x y
2
1
,
4
1
2
= =
3
2
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
0
2
2 2
2
0
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
xdx x dx x x dy y xydx W
path 3 (broken line)
0 = dx
0 = dy
}
=
=
1
0
2
3
1
) 0 0 (
y
dy y y
3
5
2
3
1
, 2 ) 0 1 1 (
3
2
0
= + = =
}
=
W dx x
y
path 4 (parameter) x=2t^2, y=t^2
x: (0,2) t: (0,1)
( )
6
7
2 2 4 2
1
0
2
2 2 2 2
4
= = =
} }
tdt t tdt t t dy y xydx W
1)
2)
1)
2)
Example 2. Find the value of
}
+

=
2 2
y x
ydx xdy
I
path 1 (polar coordinate ) r=1 (constant)
so, only du may be considered.
u
u u u u u u
d
d d
y x
ydx xdy
=

=
+

1
) sin ( sin ) (cos cos
2 2
1 , cos , sin
sin , cos
2 2
= + = =
= =
y x d dy y
d dx x
u u u
u u u
t u
t
= =
}
0
1
d I
path 2
1)
2)
(0,1)
(-1,0) (1,0)
1 + = x y
x y =1
2
) 1 2 arctan(
) 1 (
) 1 ( 0
1
0
1
2 2 2 2
t
= + =
+ +
+
=
+

} }
x
x x
dx x xdx
y x
ydx xdy
2
) 1 2 arctan(
) 1 (
) 1 ( 1
0
1
0
2 2 2 2
t
= =
+
+
=
+

} }
x
x x
dx x xdx
y x
ydx xdy
t =
2
I
## Question: Would you compare between example 1 and 2?
2) Conservative fields (F or V) ()
- Example 1 : depends on the path. nonconservative field
- Example 2 : does not depend on the path. conservative field
field ve conservati for condition sufficient and necessary , 0 curl = F

0 this, From
, , similarly and ,
, Using
, ,
2
2 2
= V
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
=
c c
c
=
c
c
c c
c
=
c c
c
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V =
F
x
F
z
F
y
F
z
F
x
F
x y
W
y
F
x y
W
y x
W
z
W
F
y
W
F
x
W
F
z
W
y
W
x
W
W F
z x z
y y
x
z y x

k j i
. for which find can we , 0 if , Conversely
0 , If
W F W F
F W F
V = = V
= V V =

3) Potential (|) ()

\
|
=
V =
potential scalar : ) (
field ve conservati :
,
W
F
F
|
|

}
=
B
A
s d F

## | for A: a proper reference point

cf. Electric field, gravitational field conservative
Example 3. Show that F is conservative, and find a scalar potential.
k j i ) 1 3 ( ) 2 (
2 2 3
+ + = xz x z xy F

0
1 3 2
2 2 3
=

c
c
c
c
c
c
= V
xz x z xy
z y x
F
k j i

1) F is conservative.
} }
+ + = =
B
A
B
A
dz xz dy x dx z xy r d F W ) 1 3 ( ) 2 (
2 2 3

(0,0,0)
(x,y,z)
a. find the point where the field (or potential) is zero.
b. do line integral to an arbitrary point along the path with which the
integration is easiest.
i) dx
ii) dy
iii) dz
(x,0,0)
(x,y,0)
i) only dx
0 ) (
0 , 0
0
= =
= = = =
}
=
x
x
W
dz dy z y
ii) only dy
}
=
= = = =
y
y x dy x
dz dx z const x
0
2 2
0 , 0 .,
iii) only dz
}
= +
= = =
z
z xz dz xz
dy dx const y x
0
3 2
) 1 3 (
0 ., ,
z xz y x W + + = =
3 2
|
2) Scalar potential of F
Example 4. scalar potential for the electric field of a point charge q at the origin
r
q
r
q
r
rdr
q
rdr r d r r r d
r
r d r
q r d E
r
r
q
r
r
r
q
r
q
E
r
r
= = =
= =

= =
= = =

}
} }
3
r to
3
r to
3 2 2
2 2 ) ( For
|
|

r
e
AdA A d A cf =

.
9. Greens theorem in the plane ( Green )
- The integral of the derivative of a function is the function.
) ( ) ( ) ( a f b f dx x f
dx
d
b
a
=
}
1) Definition of Green theorem
s derivative partial first continuous with function a : ) , ( ), , ( y x Q y x P
dy y a Q y b Q dxdy
x
y x Q
dxdy
x
y x Q
d
c y
d
c
b
a x A
)] , ( ) , ( [
) , ( ) , (
} } } }}
= =
=
c
c
=
c
c
Area integral:
Line integral:
}
} } }
=
+ =
d
c
c
d C
d
c
dy y a Q y b Q
dy y a Q dy y b Q dy y x Q
)] , ( ) , ( [
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
} }}
=
c
c

C A
Qdy dxdy
x
Q
cf.
dx c x P d x P dxdy
y
y x P
dxdy
y
y x P
d
c y
b
a
b
a x A
)] , ( ) , ( [
) , ( ) , (
} } } }}
= =
=
c
c
=
c
c
Similarly,
}
} } }
=
+ =
d
a
a
b C
a
a
dx d x P c x P
dx d x P dx c x P dx y x P
)] , ( ) , ( [
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
} }}
=
c
c

C A
Pdx dxdy
y
P
theorem s Green' , ) (
}} }
c
c

c
c
= +
A C
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
Qdy Pdx
This relation is valid even for an irregular shape!!
Using Greens theorem we can evaluate either a line integral around a closed
path or a double integral over the area inclosed, whichever is easier to do.
Example 1. F=xyi-y
2
j, find the work from (0,0) to (2,1) and back
) (
2
2
}
=
=
+ =
=
dy y xydx W
dy y xydx r d F
dy dx r d
r d F dW

j i
For a closed path, 1
3 2
= W W
path 2 (parabola)
xdx dy x y
2
1
,
4
1
2
= =
3
2
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
0
2
2 2
2
0
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
} }
xdx x dx x x dy y xydx W
(previous section)
path 3 (broken line)
0 = dx
0 = dy
}
=
=
1
0
2
3
1
) 0 0 (
y
dy y y
3
5
2
3
1
, 2 ) 0 1 1 (
3
2
0
= + = =
}
=
W dx x
y
1)
2)
1)
2)
Example 1. F=xyi-y
2
j, find the work from (0,0) to (2,1) and back
) (
2
2
}
=
=
+ =
=
dy y xydx W
dy y xydx r d F
dy dx r d
r d F dW

j i
For a closed path, 1
3 2
= W W
Using Greens theorem,
} } }}
}} }
= =
c
= = =
(

c
c

c
c
= =
1
0
2
0
2 2
1
) ( ) (
y
y
x A
A A
xdxdy xdxdy
dxdy xy
y
y
x
dy y xydx W
}} }
c
c

c
c
= +
A C
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
Qdy Pdx cf ) ( .
Example 2.
dxdy
y
F
x
F
dy F dx F W
x
A
y
A
y x
) ( ) (
c
c

c
c
= + =
}} }
c
0 If =
c
c

c
c
y
F
x
F
x
y
( z-component of curl F = 0),
then, W from one point to another point is independent of the path.
(F : conservative field)
}} }
c
c

c
c
= +
A C
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
Qdy Pdx cf ) ( .
- Two useful way to apply Greens theorem to the integration of vector functions
y x y x
V V V P V Q j i V + = = = where , ,
0 with , div = =
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
z
y
x
V
y
V
x
V
y
P
x
Q
V
0
where normal), (outward
(tangent)
2 2
=
+ = =
+ =
ds d
dy dx ds dx dy ds
dy dx d
n r
j i n
j i r
ds dx dy V V dy V dx V Qdy Pdx
y x x y
n V j i j i = + = + = + ) ( ) (
} }}
c
=
A
A
ds dxdy n V V div
Divergence theorem
}} }}}
c
=
t t
o d dxdydz n V V div
a) Divergence theorem
}} }
c
c

c
c
= +
A C
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
Qdy Pdx cf ) ( .
b) Stokes theorem
y x x y
V V V P V Q j i V + = = = where , ,
0 with , ) (curl = =
c
c

c
c
=
c
c

c
c
z
x
y
V
y
V
x
V
y
P
x
Q
k V
r V j i j i d dy dx V V dy V dx V Qdy Pdx
y x y x
= + + = + = + ) ( ) (
} }}
c
=
A A
d dxdy r V k V) (curl
Stokes theorem
} }}
c
=
o o
o r V n V d d ) (curl
}} }
c
c

c
c
= +
A C
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
Qdy Pdx cf ) ( .
Chapter 6 Vector analysis
Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas
Lecture 21 Divergence and Divergence theorem
10. Divergence and divergence theorem ( )
z
V
y
V
x
V
V V V
z y x
V V
z
y
x
z y x
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=

c
c
c
c
c
c
= = V ) , , ( ) , , ( div

flow of a gas, heat, electricity, or particles
v V =
n V = =
= '
'
u u
u

cos cos
cos
) )( )( (
V v
A vt A vt
A vt
: flow of water
amount of water crossing A for t
1) Physical meaning of divergence
) , , (
z y x
V V V V =

## - Rate at which water flows across surface 1

dydz V
x
) 1 (
- Rate at which water flows across surface 2
dydz V
x
) 2 (
- Net outflow along x-axis
dydz dx
x
V
dydz V V
x
x x
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= )] 1 ( ) 2 ( [
axis - z along ,
axis - y along ,
dxdy dz
z
V
dzdx dy
y
V
z
y
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
In this way,
dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz
z
V
y
V
x
V
z
y
x
V V V = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
div
Divergence is the net rate of outflow per unit volume at a point.
(a) positive divergence for positive charge (or negative divergence for a negative
charge)
(b) zero divergence
(c) positive divergence along the z-axis
cf. (from Griffiths)
Example 1.4 in Figure 1.18
s? divergence ir then the .... ..........

,
,
z v
z v
z y x r v
z
z y x
c
b
a
=
=
+ + = =
. 1
0
3
= V
= V
= V
c
b
a
v
v
v
cf. (from Griffiths)
= (source density) minus (sink density)
= net mass of fluid being created (or added via something like a minute
sprinkler system) per unit time per unit volume
= density of fluid = mass per unit volume
c/ct = time rate of increase of mass per unit volume
Rate of increase of mass in dxdydz
= (rate of creation) minus (rate of outward flow)
V
V
V =
c
c
V =
c
c

t
dxdydz dxdydz dxdydz
t
1) If there is no source or sinks, 0 =
continuity of Equation , 0 =
c
c
+ V
t

V
= V V , 0 If =
c
c
t

## cf. 0 div , div = = B D

2) Example of the divergence 1
2)
Consider any closed surface.
| u u o d d r d sin
2
=
Mass of fluid flowing out through do is V-n do.
Total outflow:
}}
o d n V
For volume element dt=dxdydz, the outflow from dt is
t d V V
}}
}}
= V
= V

t
t
t
o
t
o t
d
o d
d
d
d
d d
of surface
of surface
1
lim n V V
n V V
another definition of divergence
3) Example of the divergence 2
}} }}}
= V
t
t
o t
inclosing
surface volume
d d n V V
4) Divergence theorem
5) Example of the divergence theorem
? , = + + =
}
o d z y x n V k j i V
h a d d d
z
z
y
y
x
x
d d
3
cylinder
of volume
cylinder
of surface
3 3
, 3
t t t o
t o
= = V =
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
V =
} }}} }
}}} }
V n V
V
V n V
If we directly evaluate
}
o d n V
r
j i
n
k
=
+
=
a
y x
: surface curved
: top
6) Gausss law
electric field at r due to a point chage q at (0,0)
unit) mks in in vacuum 10 9 1/4 constant, dielectric : (
law s Coulomb'
4
9
2
=
=
tc c
tc
r
e E
r
q
r
e D E D
2
4
,
r
q

t
= =
O = O = = =
= = O
qd d r
r
q
DdA d D d
dA
r
d d d
t t
o u o
| u u
4
1
4
cos
1
sin
2
2
2
n D
) inside ( 4
4 4
angle solid
total
surface
closed
o t q q

q
d

q
d

= = O =
} }
n D

} }
= =
i
i
i

i

q d d
surface
closed
surface
closed
n D n D For multi-sources,
surface closed the inside charge total
surface
closed
=
}

d n D
} }
=
o
t
by bounded
volume
surface
closed
d d

n D
Gausss Law
} } }
= V =
o o
t t
by bounded
volume
by bounded
volume
surface
closed
d d

D n D
Using the divergence theorem,
ext
= V D
7) Example of gausss law. E=?
a) For electrostatic problem, E=0 inside
b) For symmetry, E should be vertical.
area) surface ( , = =
}
D n D D n D o d
total charge inside is C(surface area) for C surface charge density.
C
C
=
=
D
D area) (surface area) surface (
Chapter 6 Vector analysis
Mathematical methods in the physical sciences 3rd edition Mary L. Boas
Lecture 22 Curl and Stokes theorem
11. Curl and Stokes theorem ( Stokes )
z y x
z y x
V V V
z y x
V V V
z y x
V V
c
c
c
c
c
c
=

c
c
c
c
c
c
= = V
k j i
) , , ( ) , , ( curl

v

u sin r
r

u
e

0 since
) ( ) (
3 ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
=
c
c
=
c
c
= + + = + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
V V = V = V
=
x
z
x
y
z y x
z y x
z
z
y
y
x
x
z y x z y x
k j i k j i k j i r
r
r r r v
r v
e e e e e e
r v 2 ) ( = V = V
Curl v gives the angular velocity.
Ex.
}
r V d n circulatio
curl V = 0
curl V = 0
curl V = 0
curl V = 0
curl V = 0
1) meaning of curl
vs.
cf. (from Griffiths)
Example 1.5
curls? their then, ...... ..........
1.19b) (Fig.
1.19a) (Fig.
y v
y x v
x
x y
b
a
=
+ =
.
, 2
z v
z v
= V
= V
a
a
cf. (from Griffiths)
}
}} }} }
= V
= =

o
o
o o o
o
o
d
d
d d d
d
d
n V
d dxdy d
around
0
around
1
lim ) (
, ) (curl ) (curl
r V
n V k V r V
}} }
V =
o
o
o
surface
bounding
curve
) ( d d n V r V Stokes theorem
good
Example 1.
. 0 , hemisphere over the
? ) ( , 2 4
2 2 2 2
> = + +
= V + + =
}
z a z y x
d z x y o n V k j i V
k V 3 = V
(a) integrate the expression at it stands
(b) use Stokes theorem and evaluate the line integral around the circle
(c) use Stokes theorem to say that the integral is the same over any
surface bounded by the circle, for example, the planar area inside the
circle.
( ) ( ) 3 3 = = V
=
k k n V
k n
Amperes law I d
C
=
}
r H
H : magnetic field
C : closed curve
I : current
r
I
I r rd d
C
t
t u
t
2
2
2
0
=
= = =
} }
H
H H r H
J H
n J n H
n H r H
n J J n J r H
= V
= V
V =
= = =
}} }}
}} }
} }} }
o o
o
o
o
o o
o
o o
d d
d d
d I d I d
C
C
) (
) (
cf. densitiy current : ,
: one of the Maxwell equations
For a specific case,
Conservative fields
simply connected if a simple closed curve
in the region can be shrunk to a point without
encountering any points not in the region.
If the components of F have continuous first partial derivatives in a simple
connected region, any one implies all the others.
a) curl F = 0
b) closed line integral = 0
c) F conservative
d) F = grad W, W single valued
Vector potential
0 , definition By
0 potential vector : for , 0 div
0 , definition By
0 potential scalar : for , 0 curl
= V V
= V V = =
= V V
= V V = =
A
B A A V V
E V V

W
W W
Example 2. ), 2 ( 2 ) (
2 2
zx z yz yz x + = k j i V
? , = V = A A V
0 2 2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) (
2 2
= + =

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
x z z x
zx x
z
yz
y
yz z
x
divV
z y x
A A A
z y x c
c
c
c
c
c
= V =
k j i
A V
There are many As to satisfy this equation. For convenience, set one
component A_x =0.
k j i
k j i
A V
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
= V =
x
A
x
A
z
A
y
A
A A
z y x
y
z
y
z
z y
0
i)
ii)
x
A
zx z
x
A
yz
y
z
c
c
=
c
c
= 2 , 2
2
) , ( 2
) , (
2
1
2 2
z y f xyz A
z y f zx x z A
z
y
+ =
+ =
,
2
z
A
y
A
yz x
y
z
c
c

c
c
=
z
f
x
y
f
z
f
x zx
y
f
xz
z
A
y
A
yz x
y
z
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
+ =
c
c

c
c
=
1
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 2
There are many ways to select f1 and f2.
)
2
1
2 ( ) ( then,
,
2
1
, 0 taking If
2 2 2
2
2 1
z y xyz zx x z
z y f f
+ =
= =
k j A
Generalization for A potential vector : for , 0 div A A V V V = =
For A_x=0,
x
A
V
x
A
V
y
z
z
y
c
c
=
c
c
= V = , , A V
), , ( ), , ( z y g dx V A z y f dx V A
y z z y
+ = + =
} }
) , ( ,
, 0 div For
) , (
z y h dx
x
V
V
x
V
z
V
y
V
z y h dx
z
V
y
V
z
A
y
A
V
x
x
x z
y
z
y y
z
x
+
c
c
=
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c

=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c

c
c
=
}
}
V
cf. When we know one A, all others are of the form,
( ) A V A V = = V V V + 0 u , u
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1

1

1 1

1

z
T T
s s
T
s
s s
T
Laplacian
v rv v
z s
s
r
Curl
z
v
v
s
sv
s s
Divergence
z
T T
s s
T
T
z s
z
s
c
c
+
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
|
|
|
|
|
|
z s
v
v
z s
cf. Cylindrical coordinate
( ) ( )
.
sin
1
sin
sin
1 1

sin

sin

sin
1

sin
1
sin
sin
1 1

sin
1

2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
| u u
u
u u
u
| u
u
u
| u
u
u u
| u u
| u
|
u
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
c
c
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
T
r
T
r r
T
r
r r
T
Laplacian
v r rv v
r
r r
r
Curl
v
r
v
r
v r
r r
Divergence
T
r
T
r r
T
T