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GPRS and EDGE Introduction

ZTE University

Objective

At the end of this course, you will be able to understand:

Learn the background, standards and evolution of GPRS and EDGE Master structure and protocol of GPRS/EDGE network Master radio block structure and channel code of GPRS and EDGE Learn the difference of GPRS and EDGE Learn cell reselection procedure and RLC/MAC procedure

Content

Review of GPRS and EDGE Technologies Channel Combination and Frame Structure Comparison of GPRS and EDGE Data Transferring Process Process of Evolution from GPRS and EDGE to 3G

What is GPRS?

GPRS General Packet Radio Service

Packet switch is most efficient way of using frequency in data application. GPRS = mobile + IP, which is the integration of GSM radio access technique and internet packet switch technique.

What is EDGE?

EDGE Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution

Improve the data transmission rate through radio connections in GSM. Including EGPRS and ECSD, it can be used to transmit PS and CS data. It can fully make use of existing GSM resources.

Technical Features of GPRS

Seamless Connection to IP Network High Transmission Always Online and Traffic Accounting Provides existing mature GSM technologies and data service deployment schemes.

Technical Features of EDGE

A kind of modulation coding technology, which has changed the rate of air interface. The characteristics of air interface in EDGE are same as those in GSM. EDGE just upgrades BTS and PCU. The core network of EDGE adopts a three-layer model. EDGE supports both packet switching and circuit switching modes for data transmission.

Network Structure of GPRS and EDGE


BSS PSTN HLR/AUC

R/S

Um

SMS-GMSC PCU MSC SS7 Network Router

EIR SGSN Border Gateway Inter-PLMN network GGSN Firewall Data Network (Internet)

Server

GPRS Backbone IP based

Firewall PTM-SC GPRS Infrastructure Firewall Data Network X.25

Router
R

Server

Transmission Protocol Platform of GPRS and EDGE

Signaling Protocol Platform of GPRS and EDGE(1)

Signaling Protocol Platform of GPRS and EDGE(2)

Content

Review of GPRS and EDGE Technologies Channel Combination and Frame Structure Comparison of GPRS and EDGE Data Transferring Process Process of Evolution from GPRS and EDGE to 3G

Frame Structure and Channel Combination

52 Multiframe Structure Logical Channel Classification

52 Multiframe Structure
52 TDMA Frames
B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

RLC Block

T = PTCCH,
I= Idle frame
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

B0 - B11 = Radio blocks


TDMA frame

Except PRACH and PTCCH/U, the unit of logical channels is Block with the occupancy sequence is B0, B6, B3, B9, B1, B7, B4, B10, B2, B8, B5, B11.

52 Multiframe Structure

PDCH frame organization


One 52 multi-frame includes 12 radio blocks In circuit domain, one TDMA frame is divided into 8 TSL TSL assigned to GPRS is PDCH Multiple TSL can constitute one PDCH group, each including 8 TSL at most. Basic unit of radio resource allocation and radio transferring is BLOCK. One BLOCK includes 4 TDMA frame which is the smallest unit of user occupancy. Surplus 4 burst is used for measuring and reporting TA Multiple users scramble for these blocks, in this way the goal of packet share is achieved.

Logical Channel Classification


CS PDTCH/CS1 PDTCH/CS2 PDTCH/CS3 PDTCH/CS4

Traffic CH
Logical CH

PS

PBCCH PRACH PAGCH PCCCH

Control CH

PPCH PNCH
PACCH PTCCH/D

PDCCH

PTCCH/U

Logical Channel Classification

Packet Data Channel (PDCH)

include packet service channel and packet control channel Unidirectional traffic channelPDTCH/UPDTCH/D Broadcasting control channelPBCCH Common control channelPPCHPRACHPAGCH PNCHsend notification message Dedicated control channelPACCHPTCCH/Uto estimate TAPTCCH/Dsend TA upgrading message

Packet Data Traffic Channel (PDTCH)

Packet Control Channel


Packet Logical Channel to Physical Channel Mapping

Combination of logical channels


Mode 1PBCCHPCCCHPDTCHPACCH PTCCH Mode 2PCCCHPDTCHPACCHPTCCH Mode 3PDTCHPACCHPTCCH PCCCH = PPCH + PRACH + PAGCH + PNCH When GPRS traffic is not intense, GPRS and circuit traffic generally share BCCH and CCCH in cells. In this case, mode 3 is needed. Packet common channel is needed to be configured in the cell. Channel combination is either mode 1 or mode 2.

Service Volume

With the accumulation of traffic

GPRS Channel Coding


RLC / MAC layer
RLC / MAC header

RLC Data Radio block Convolutional coding

BCS

Puncturing 456 bits

Physical layer 4 bursts


Coding scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 Code rate 1/2 ~ 2/3 ~ 3/4 1 Radio block excl. BCS 184 274 318 440 BCS 40 16 16 16 Tail Coded bits Punctured bits 4 456 0 4 588 132 4 676 220 456 0 Bit rate 9.05 kbit/s 13,4 kbit/s 15,6 kbit/s 21,4 kbit/s

GPRS Channel Coding

GPRS defines four channel coding mode from CS-1 to CS4

Data rate is 9.05 Kbps, 13.4 Kbps, 15.6 Kbps21.4 Kbps accordingly. Channel coding of CS-1 is the same with that of SDCCH. C/I of CS-1 and CS-2 is the same with that of voice service with the coverage of 90100C/I of CS-3 is higherC/I of CS-4 is much higher and favorable radio environment are required.

Network will adjust channel coding mode based on realtime monitoring of radio transmission

Different TSL can select different channel coding mode When the quality radio transmission is good, its necessary to use more efficient coding mode.

EDGE Channel Coding

EDGE Coding Schemes MCS-1 to MCS-9

EDGE Channel Coding

Coding Family

Family A: The payload of family A code has 37 bytes. It corresponds to MCS-3, MCS-6 or MCS-9 coding scheme. Family A padding: The payload of family A padding code has 34 bytes. It corresponds to MCS-3, MCS-6,or MCS-8 coding schemes. Family B: The payload of family B code has 28 bytes. It corresponds to MCS-2, MCS-5 or MCS-7 coding scheme. Family C: The payload of family C code has 22 bytes. It corresponds to MCS-1 or MCS-4 coding scheme.

Content

Review of GPRS and EDGE Technologies Channel Combination and Frame Structure Comparison of GPRS and EDGE Data Transferring Process Process of Evolution from GPRS and EDGE to 3G

Overview Comparison of GPRS and EDGE

EDGE is built on the basis of GPRS. EDGE has great influence on GPRS RF, physical layer at radio interface, and RLC/MAC protocol. Relative to GPRS, EDGE changed Link Quality Control (LQC).

Comparison of Physical Layer: GMSK and 8-PSK

GPRS uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) as the modulation mode. In addition to GMSK (MCS1~MCS-4), EGPRS also uses 8-PSK modulation mode (MCS5~MCS9).

Comparison of RLC/MAC Layer

Comparison of Coding Scheme


GPRS uses CS1~CS4 modulation and coding schemes. EGPRS uses MCS1~MCS9 modulation and coding schemes. In GPRS, a RLC radio block only corresponds to a RLC data block. In EGDE, a RLC radio block can correspond to two RLC data blocks using MCS7~MCS9 coding scheme,

RLC/MAC Radio Block Structure

Link Quality Control

In GPRS, it only supports adaptive link mode. In EDGE, it not only supports adaptive link mode (mixed ARQ type 1), but also supports incremental redundancy (mixed ARQ type 2).

Channel Quality Report

In GPRS, two measurements can be done up to within 240 ms. In EDGE, measurement can be done on the basis of each pulse.

Content

Review of GPRS and EDGE Technologies Channel Combination and Frame Structure Comparison of GPRS and EDGE Data Transferring Process Process of Evolution from GPRS and EDGE to 3G

UL TBF Access

TBF establishment process on the following channels


CCCH PCCCH PACCH ONE PHASE means network assigns adequate resource one time upon network receiving channel request. TWO PHASE means network assigns single RLC & MAC block the first time and assign corresponding RR upon MSs specific request.

Access Mode

CCCH One-phase Access


MS Packet Channel Request Packet Immediate Assignment PAGCH or AGCH Uplink Data (TLLI) Uplink Data (TLLI) Uplink Data (TLLI) ...... PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH PACCH Network

PRACH or RACH

Packet Uplink Ack/Nack


Uplink Data

PDTCH

CCCH Two-phase Access

MS

Network

Packet Channel Request Packet Immediate Assignment Packet Resource Request


Packet Resource Assignment Uplink Data Uplink Data

PRACH or RACH PAGCH or AGCH PACCH PACCH PDTCH PDTCH

GPRS UL Data Transfer


MS Access and Assignment PDTCH PDTCH Data Block Data Block Data Block (last in send window) Packet Uplink Ack/Nack Data Block Data Block Packet Uplink Assignment Data Block Data Block (last) LLC PDU final Packet Ack/Nack BSS SGSN

PDTCH
PACCH PDTCH PDTCH

PACCH
PACCH PDTCH PACCH

GPRS Paging

MS Packet Paging Request

Network

PPCH or PCH
PRACH or RACH

Packet Channel Request


Packet Immediate Assignment

PAGCH or AGCH
Packet Paging Response (LLC frame)

PACCH

GPRS DL Data Transfer


MS AGCH PACCH PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH PACCH Immediate Assignment Packet Downlink Assignment Data Block Data Block Data Block (polling) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack Data Block Network LLC PDU SGSN

PDTCH
PDTCH PACCH

Data Block
Packet Downlink Assignment Data Block Data Block (last, polling) final Packet Ack/Nack

PDTCH
PACCH

PACCH

Obtain TA in GPRS Data Transferring

TA Initialization

Initial TA value isnt contained in Immediate Assignment message, indicating UL data transmission will not be conducted before TA value is gotten from TA update System sends Packet Polling Message requesting MS to send access burst for computing of initial TA value Use default TA value as initial TA for cell radius is not great. Update once every 8x52multi-frame (1920ms, approximately 2 second)

Continuous TA update

Continously TA Update Process


TAI 416 TDMA frames 26 TDMA frames 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Uplink:

Downlink: TA message 1

TA message 2

TA message 3

TA message 4 Idle frame

For UL & DL data transferring, TAI will be gotten upon getting PDCH. TAI is from 0 to 15 and indicates 16 idle frame location of constant 8*52 multi-frame. On UL channel, MS sends access burst on Idle frame assigned by specified TAI. On DL, corresponding idle frame sends TA Message.

Power Control in GPRS Transferring Process

MS UL transmission power formulapower unit is dBM P = min(0 - CH - * (C + 48), PMAX)

CH is power control parameter constant through control message from network to MS related to MS and channels, 0 is a constant and the value is 39dBm in the case GSM900 and 36dBm in the case of DCS1800 is notified to MS by control message of BCCH or RLC , and is a weighting factor of receiving factor when MS computing TxPwr with the value of 0~1. Cstandardized value of MS receiving signaling level. PMAX is maximum transmission power allowed in cell and the value is GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH when PBCCH exists otherwise it is MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH

Graph of GPRS Data Transmission

BTS BSC

BSC BTS

SGSN Inter-PLMN Backbone Network BG HPLMN BG

SGSN

Intra-PLMN Backbone Network


GGSN

Intra-PLMN Backbone Network


GGSN VPLMN

Server Data Network

Content

Review of GPRS and EDGE Technologies Channel Combination and Frame Structure Comparison of GPRS and EDGE Data Transferring Process Process of Evolution from GPRS and EDGE to 3G

Channel Coding of GPRS& EDGE

GPRS Evolution

According to tradition, GSM-GPRS-EDGEWCDMA is the right path from GSM to 3G. But in GSA case, EDGE parallels WCDMA. i.e the roll of EDGE changes in evolution from one stop to the destination. According to the definition of 3G set by ITU, 384kbps is the criterion of 3G. Theoretically EDGE rate reaches 473.6kbps, So for small or middle sized operators without 3G license, EDGE is their destination.

GPRS Evolution