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Solutions pp.

248 #4 7

4. a) BCl3 6 a) CaSO4
Ca: 29.44% S; 23.53% O: 47.01% 7. a) AgC2H3O2 Ag: 64.62% C: 14.39% H: 1.82% O: 19.17%

b) SO2 b) SiO2
Si: 46.75% O: 53.25%

c) NaNO3 c) AgNO3
Ag: 63.50% N: 8.247% O: 28.26%

5. SO2 d) NO
N: 46.68% O: 53.32%

b) Pb(ClO3)2 Pb: 55.39% Cl: 18.95% O: 25.66%

c) Fe2(SO4)3 Fe: 27.93% S: 24.06% O: 48.01%

d) CuSO4 Cu: 39.81% S: 20.09% O: 40.10%

Solutions and Concentration


Ch 13 Sec 1 & 2

pp. 454 467

Solutions and Concentration BellRinger


Sketch two drawings:

1) a bunch of molecules in a compound 2) a bunch of molecules in a mixture


Use small circles to represent atoms. Each sketch should have at least 5 molecules.

http://www.docbrown.info/page01/ElCpdMix/EleCmdMix.htm

Matter Flowchart
MATTER
yes
Can it be separated by physical means?

no

MIXTURE

PURE SUBSTANCE

yes

Is the composition uniform?

no

yes

Can it be decomposed by chemical means?

no

Homogeneous Mixture (solution)

Heterogeneous Mixture

Compound

Element
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Colloids

Suspensions

Solutions - homogeneous mixture


Solute
Substance in the solution that has been dissolved Substance is said to be soluble
The amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature is called its solubility.

Solvent
Substance that does the dissolving

Solutions - homogeneous mixture


Kinetic Energy of the solvent can keep the small solute particles evenly mixed Solutions may include any phase of matter
Solute Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Solid Solvent Gas Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Liquid Solid Example Air (oxygen in nitrogen) Soda (carbon dioxide in water) Charcoal gas mask (poisonous gas on carbon) Antifreeze (ethylene glycol in water Dental filling (mercury in silver) Ocean water (salt in water) Gold jewelry (copper in gold)
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Activity
The sample has 60 dots evenly spaced; and ~ 5 dots in every square inch. If we take half the sample, we still have 5 dots per square inch, but now half the number of dots. Why is this?

Wrap up: Amount of dots does depend on size because it is a quantity. Dots per squared inch does not depend on size because it is a ratio of two quantities.

Activity
Think of the diagram above as an even mixture of sugar and water molecules. The dots are sugar molecules, and the water is not shown because there is so much more water that it is too tiresome to draw. Instead, think of the blank space as a background packed full of invisible water molecules. What is the concentration of sugar? What about water?

Key Points
Every substance in a solution (mixture) has a concentration. Concentration is a ratio:

Why are ratios useful?

Key Points
Ratios allow us to convert between quantities! Can be conversion factors. Quantities (like mass, amount, volume, distance, etc.) do depend on sample size and should remain proportional through any conversion.

Conversion factors let us convert between quantities (number, moles, mass). If I double the mass, the amount in moles and the number of particles doubles proportionally.

Practice HOLT
pg 465 # 1 7 pg 467 # 7 11

Appendix: Heterogeneous Mixtures

Matter Flowchart

Matter Flowchart

http://science-dfjhs.web.nebo.edu/home/8th-grade/chemistry/chem1/c1

Matter Flowchart
MATTER
yes
Can it be separated by physical means?

no

MIXTURE

PURE SUBSTANCE

yes

Is the composition uniform?

no

yes

Can it be decomposed by chemical means?

no

Homogeneous Mixture (solution)

Heterogeneous Mixture

Compound

Element
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Colloids

Suspensions

Comparison
Description
Settle upon standing Can be separated using filter paper Sizes of particles Scatter light

Solutions
No No

Colloids
No No

Suspension
Yes Yes

0.1 1nm No

1 100 nm Yes

Greater than 100 nm Yes


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Heterogeneous Mixtures
Two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined
Must not be chemically combined Substances must keep separate identities & most of their properties Substances may change in physical appearance; melt, dissolve, boil May be in present in any amount
More salt than pepper
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Colloids
Exhibit the Tyndal effect
Scattering of visible light in all directions Suspensions also show Tyndal effect Solutions do not scatter light, because of their small particle size. (Light passes through solutions.)

colloid
Which glass contains a colloid?

solution

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- Page 461 Note that you can easily see the sunbeam, probably due to the presence of fog in the forest

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Suspension - heterogeneous mixture


Particles are larger than 1,000 nm Particles can be filtered Unstable mixtures which settle over time

Italian salad dressing, squeezed orange juice, house paint, mud

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