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# Ensemble-Based History Matching for Channelized Petroleum Reservoirs

Matei ene
Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics

Motivation

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Petroleum Reservoir

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Water flooding

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2D Channelized Reservoirs
Rock type Permeability Porosity

Channel sand
Background shale

100 mD
0.1 mD

20%
5%

Y-channel reservoir
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Reservoir State
=

= 1, , = 1, ,

0, = 1,

,0,1-

## likelihood that grid cell is in a channel

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History Matching
a.k.a. Data Assimilation

are poorly known a priori Let represent the prior information More information becomes available during production

## Task: incorporate this information to obtain s.t.

Realizations also show channelized structure Observations are verified by the estimate Proper representation of uncertainty

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## Ensemble Kalman Filter

Kalman, 1960; Evensen, 1994; Burgers 1998

## Monte Carlo approximation of and 1 , ,

Forecast model
(+) = ()

Observations
= +

Update

= + = +
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Multi-point Geostatistics
Strebelle, 2002

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EnKF Workflow

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## Adapting the Results for Simulation

= , where =1 : , = 1 linear, but not convex, combination ,0,1-, but may break outside of ,0,1 We use to compute and Negative permeabilities? Porosities > 1?

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(1) Truncation

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## (2) logit transform

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Parameterized EnKF

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Research topic 1

Propose a parameterization that preserves the structure of channelized reservoirs over sequential assimilation steps.

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## Polynomial Feature Space (1)

Coordinates are all monomials of the state variables up to degree Mapping Example: for = 2 grid cells and degree = 2 = 1 2

= 1

1 2

2 2

1 2

2 1

image vector

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## Dealing with Dimensionality

The dimension of :

=1

## - Hilbert space (Mercers theorem)

Inner products are easy to compute:

, = , ()

=
=1

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## Principal Component Analysis

Hotelling, 1933

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Kernel PCA
Schlkopf, 1998 Let 1 , , be a set of reservoir realizations The PC are the eigenvectors of their covariance matrix: = PCA on (1 ), , ( ) Keep the most significant of the

## Compute projections on the PC

: , = for any state vector where = (),

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## The Preimage Problem

We need = 1 ( ) Impossible, in general Sarma et al (2008) approximate using fixed-point iterations:

() =

() =

() =1 (1) 1 =1
=1 (1) =1

= 1,2,

Local optima!

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Analytical Solution

## Let , = If invertible, then

= = 1 (, ) = 1 =1 ( , )

() =
=1

where = ,0 0 1 0 0-

, = + 1 1 = =1

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## Preimage Experiments (1)

Grid: 45 X 45 Training set: 500 samples Analytical trunc

Iterative

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## Preimage Experiments (2)

Grid: 45 X 45 Training set: 4000 samples Analytical trunc

Iterative

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## Preimage Experiments (3)

Grid: 100 X 100 Training set: 500 samples Analytical trunc

Iterative

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## Preimage Experiments (4)

Grid: 45 X 45 Training set: 500 samples Analytical logit

Iterative

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## Preimage Experiments (5)

Grid: 200 X 200 Training set: 500 samples Analytical logit

Iterative

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KPCA-EnKF

= 1

= 3
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= 5

Ensemble Collapse!

= 1

= 3
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= 5

Subspace EnKF
Sarma and Chen, 2013 Partition the ensemble into groups Define a different parameterization for each group Assumption: the EnKF update is equivalent to the steepest descent equation
= + =

= +

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Results (1)

= 1

= 3
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= 5

Results (2)

= 1

= 3
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= 5

## Comparative History Matching

Ribbon Reservoir
Sat after 1 year Sat after 5 years

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Ensemble Mean

EnKF

KPCA-EnS, d=3
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5-Subspace EnKF

Ensemble Variability

EnKF

KPCA-EnS, d=3
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5-Subspace EnKF

Research topic 2

Study the effect of the number of subspaces when using the Subspace EnKF for history matching channelized reservoirs.

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Experiment Setup

Sources of information
Ensemble: 100 members Training set: 5 1500 samples

## Split the 7500 training samples evenly over *2,10,50+ subspaces

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Ensemble Variability

2 subspaces

10 subspaces
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50 subspaces

Research topic 3

Develop a strategy to form the subspaces which takes into account the prior information about the reservoir.

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## Training Set Clustering

Generally applicable to any type of reservoir It can create specialized subspaces We used a separate set of 1400 samples to train a KPCA order 3 parameterization, Applied it to the training set, = ( ) And performed K-means clustering on the , in order to partition the 7500 training samples for *2,10,50+ subspaces

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Ensemble Variability

2 subspaces

10 subspaces
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50 subspaces

Ensemble Means

2 subspaces

10 subspaces
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50 subspaces

Contributions

Proposed a new approach to update binary variables Studied adaptation methods for the update of bounded variables Developed an analytical method to compute polynomial KPCA preimages Paired the KPCA parameterization with the Iterative EnS and Subspace EnKF to avoid collapse Proposed training set clustering to adapt the parameterizations to the prior information
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Recommendations
The analytical solution is generally preferable over approximate preimage schemes Normalization + logit transform is generally preferable to truncaton when updating bounded variables When using the Subspace EnKF, the number of subspaces needs to be balanced with the training set size. Training set clustering seems to increase posterior variability, especially when a large number of subspaces is used.

One assimilation method is not generally better than the others; the results need to be discussed with an expert

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Future research
What is the effect of polynomial KPCA when used to update continuous variables?

Can we extend the facies variables to cases with more than 2 types of rock? (see Sebacher et al, 2013)
What is the benefit when using polynomial chaos expansions together with KPCA? (see Ma and Zabaras, 2011).

Is the Kalman update equivalent with the steepest descent equation? (see Sarma and Chen, 2013).
Is it possible to adapt higher degree KPCA to the Subspace EnKF framework? (see Sarma and Chen, 2013). How do the presented assimilation methods scale to realistic 3D cases?
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Keywords
Water flooding Channelized reservoir State vector, facies History matching Ensemble Kalman Filter Multi-point geostatistics Adaptation methods
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Parameterization

Feature space
Polynomial KPCA Preimage problem Ensemble collapse Subspace EnKF Training set clustering

Cheat Slides

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Rock Properties

Porosity (%)

Permeability (mD)
flow effort pore connectivity

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Data Flow

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Normalization

= + 1

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transform

: 0,1

1 1+

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Y-channel Setup

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Ribbon Setup

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2 subspaces

10 subspaces
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50 subspaces

Prior
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2 subspaces

10 subspaces
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50 subspaces

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