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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology o Machine Tools


!th "dition

Krar Gill Smid

Cutting Tools
Unit 29

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Objectives
Use the nomenclature of a cuttingtool point Explain the purpose of each type of rake and clearance angle Identify the applications of various types of cutting-tool materials Describe the cutting action of different types of machines

Cutting Tools
One of most important components in machining process Performance will determine efficiency of operation Two basic types (excluding abrasives
!ingle point and multi point

"ust have ra#e and clearance angles ground or formed on them

Cutting-Tool Materials
%athe toolbits generally made of five materials
&igh-speed steel 'ast alloys (such as stellite 'emented carbides 'eramics 'ermets

"ore exotic finding wide use


(ora)on and polycrystalline diamond

Lathe Toolbit Properties


&ard +ear-resistant 'apable of maintaining a red hardness during machining operation
,ed hardness- ability of cutting tool to maintain sharp cutting edge even when turns red because of high heat during cutting

.ble to withstand shoc# during cutting !haped so edge can penetrate wor#

High-Speed Steel Toolbits


"ay contain combinations of tungsten0 chromium0 vanadium0 molybdenum0 cobalt 'an ta#e heavy cuts0 withstand shoc# and maintain sharp cutting edge under red heat 1enerally two types (general purpose
"olybdenum-base (1roup " Tungsten-base (1roup T

'obalt added if more red hardness desired

Cemented-Carbide Toolbits
'apable of cutting speeds 3 to $ times highspeed steel toolbits %ow toughness but high hardness and excellent red-hardness 'onsist of tungsten carbide sintered in cobalt matrix !traight tungsten used to machine cast iron and nonferrous materials (crater easily 3ifferent grades for different wor#

Coated Carbide Toolbits


"ade by depositing thin layer of wear-resistant titanium nitride0 titanium carbide or aluminum oxide on cutting edge of tool
5used layer increases lubricity0 improves cutting edge wear resistance by 2667-*667 %owers brea#age resistance up to 267 Provides longer life and increased cutting speeds

Titanium-coated offer wear resistance at low speeds0 ceramic coated for higher speeds

Ceramic Toolbits
Permit higher cutting speeds0 increased tool life and better surface finish than carbide
+ea#er than carbide used in shoc#-free or lowshoc# situation

'eramic
&eat-resistant material produced without metallic bonding agent such as cobalt .luminum oxide most popular additive Titanium oxide or Titanium carbide can be added

iamond Toolbits
9sed mainly to machine nonferrous metals and abrasive nonmetallics !ingle-crystal natural diamonds
&igh-wear but low shoc#-resistant factors

Polycrystalline diamonds
Tiny manufactured diamonds fused together and bonded to suitable carbide substrate

Cutting-Tool !omenclature

'utting edge- leading edge of that does cutting 5ace- surface against which chip bears as it is separated from wor# :ose- Tip of cutting tool formed by ;unction of cutting edge and front face
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Cutting-Tool !omenclature

:ose radius- radius to which nose is ground


!i)e of radius will affect finish
,ough turning- small nose radius (<68*in 5inish cuts- larger radius (<6/6 to <82* in<

Point- end of tool that has been ground for cutting purposes
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Cutting-Tool Nomenclature

(ase- (ottom surface of tool shan# 5lan#- surface of tool ad;acent to and below cutting edge !han#- body of toolbit or part held in toolholder
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Lathe Toolbit Angles andClearances

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Lathe Cutting-tool "ngles

!egati#e Positi#e ra$e ra$e - -point face of cutting tool contacts and cutting metal edge first contact andmetal chip moves first and chip up moves the face down of the the face toolbit of the toolbit
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Positive

a!e Angle

'onsidered best for efficient removal of metal


'reates large shear angle at shear )one ,educes friction and heat .llows chip to flow freely along chip-tool interface

1enerally used for continuous cuts on ductile materials not too hard or abrasive

%actors &hen Choosing Type and 'a$e "ngle (or Cutting Tool
&ardness of metal to be cut Type of cutting operation
'ontinuous or interrupted

"aterial and shape of cutting tool !trength of cutting edge

Shape o( Chip
.ltered in number of ways to improve cutting action and reduce amount of power re=uired 'ontinuous straight ribbon chip can be changed to continuous curled ribbon
'hanging angle of the #eeness
>ncluded angle produced by grinding side ra#e

1rinding chip brea#er behind cutting edge of toolbit

Tool Li"e
Crater wear occurs as result of chips sliding along chip-tool interface, result of built-up edge on cutting tool

+hen flan# wear is <68* to <636 in< need to be reground

Nose wear occurs as result of friction between nose and metal being machined

Occurs on side of cutting edge as result of friction between side of cutting-tool edge and metal being machined

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Factors Affecting the Life of a Cutting Tool


Type of material being cut Microstructure of material Hardness of material Type of surface on metal (smooth or scaly) Material of cutting tool Profile of cutting tool Type of machining operation being performed Speed, feed, and depth of cut

Turning

.ssume cutting machine steel- >f ra#e and relief clearance angles correct and proper speed and feed used0 a continuous chip should be formed<
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!omenclature o( a Plain Milling Cutter

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!omenclature o( an )nd Mill

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!omenclature o( an )nd Mill

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Characteristics o( a rill Point

Chip ormation o a drill

Cutting-point angles (or standard drill


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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology o Machine Tools


!th "dition

Krar Gill Smid

O#erating Conditions and Tool Li"e


Unit 30
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required or reproduction or display.

Objectives
Describe the effect of cutting conditions on cutting-tool life Explain the effect of cutting conditions on metal-removal rates State the advantages of ne cutting-tool materials !alculate the economic performance and cost analysis for a machining operation

*perating Conditions
Three operating variables influence metalremoval rate and tool life
'utting speed 5eed rate 3epth of cut

'eduction in Tool Li(e


*perating Conditions
C+TT,!G SP)) - ./0 %)) '"T) - ./0 )PTH *% C+T - ./0

1/0

2/0

3.0

$eneral O#erating Condition ules


Proper cutting speed most critical factor to consider establishing optimum conditions
Too slow- 5ewer parts produced0 built-up edge Too fast- Tool brea#s down =uic#ly

Optimum cutting speed should balance metal-removal rate and cutting-tool life 'hoose heaviest depth of cut and feed rate possible

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology o Machine Tools


!th "dition

Krar Gill Smid

Carbide Cutting Tools


Unit 3"

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required or reproduction or display.

Objectives
Identify and state the purpose of the t o main types of carbide grades Select the proper grade of carbide for various orkpiece materials Select the proper speeds and feeds for carbide#tools

Carbide Cutting Tools


5irst used in 1ermany during ++ >> as substitute for diamonds ?arious types of cemented (sintered carbides developed to suit different materials and machining operations
1ood wear resistance Operate at speeds ranging 8*6 to 8266 sf@min

'an machine metals at speeds that cause cutting edge to become red hot without loosing harness

4lending
5ive types of powders
Tungsten carbide0 titanium carbide0 cobalt0 tantalum carbide0 niobium carbide

One or combination blended in different proportions depending on grade desired Powder mixed in alcohol (2$ to 896 h .lcohol drained off Paraffin added to simplify pressing operation

Compaction
"ust be molded to shape and si)e 5ive different methods to compact powder
Axtrusion process &ot press >sostatic press >ngot press Pill press

1reen (pressed compacts soft0 must be presintered to dissolve paraffin


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Presintering
1reen compacts heated to about 8*66B 5 in furnace under protective atmosphere of hydrogen 'arbide blan#s have consistency of chal# "ay be machined to re=uired shape
$67 oversi)e to allow for shrin#age that occurs during final sintering

Sintering
%ast step in process 'onverts presintered machine blan#s into cemented carbide 'arried out in either hydrogen atmosphere or vacuum
Temperatures between 2**6B and 2236B 5

(inder (cobalt unites and cements carbide powders into dense structure of extremely hard carbide crystals

Cemented-Carbide A##lications
9sed extensively in manufacture of metalcutting tools
Axtreme hardness and good wear-resistance

5irst used in machining operations as lathe cutting tools "a;ority are single-point cutting tools used on lathes and milling machines

T%#es o" Carbide Lathe Cutting Tools


(ra)ed-tip type
'emented-carbide tips bra)ed to steel shan#s +ide variety of styles and si)es

>ndexable insert type


Throwaway inserts +ide variety of shapes- triangular0 s=uare0 diamond0 and round
Triangular- has three cutting edges

>nserts held mechanically in special holder

Grades o( Cemented Carbides


Two main groups of carbides
!traight tungsten carbide
'ontains only tungsten carbide and cobalt !trongest and most wear-resistant 9sed for machining cast iron and nonmetals

'rater-resistant
'ontain titanium carbide and tantalum carbide in addition to tungsten carbide and cobalt 9sed for machining most steels

Tool $eometr%
Terms adopted by .!"A

$ %& '&( &) $ %& C(&*'*NC&

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Cutting-Tool Terms
5ront0 And0 ,elief ('learance
.llows end of cutting tool to enter wor#

!ide ,elief (!ide


Permits side of tool to advance into wor#

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Cutting &#eeds and 'eeds


Important factors that influence speeds, feeds, and depth of cut
Type and hardness of work material Grade and shape of cutting tool Rigidity of cutting tool Rigidity of work and machine Power rating of machine

PowerPoint to accompany

Technology o Machine Tools


!th "dition

Krar Gill Smid

Cutting 'luids( T%#es andA##lications


Unit 3$

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required or reproduction or display.

Objectives
State the importance and function of cutting fluids Identify three types of cutting fluids and state the purpose of each %pply cutting fluids efficiently for a variety of machining operations

Cutting %luids
Assential in metal-cutting operations to reduce heat and friction 'enturies ago0 water used on grindstones 866 years ago0 tallow used (did not cool %ard oils came later but turned rancid Aarly 26th century saw soap added to water !oluble oils came in 893/ 'hemical cutting fluids introduced in 89$$

)conomic "d#antages to +sing Cutting %luids


,eduction of tool costs
,educe tool wear0 tools last longer

>ncreased speed of production


,educe heat and friction so higher cutting speeds

,eduction of labor costs


Tools last longer and re=uire less regrinding0 less downtime0 reducing cost per part

,eduction of power costs


5riction reduced so less power re=uired by machining

Heat Generated uring Machining


&eat find its way into one of three places
+or#piece0 tool0 chips .ct as disposable
heat sin#

Too much0 cutting edge will brea# down rapidly0 reducing tool life
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Too much0 wor# will expand

Heat issipation
>deally most heat ta#en off in chips >ndicated by change in chip color as heat causes chips to oxidi)e 'utting fluids assist ta#ing away heat
'an dissipate at least *67 of heat created during machining

Characteristics o( a Good Cutting %luid


8< 1ood cooling capacity 2< 1ood lubricating =ualities 3< ,esistance to rancidity $< ,elatively low viscosity *< !tability (long life /< 2< 4< 9< ,ust resistance :ontoxic Transparent :onflammable

Types o( Cutting %luids


"ost commonly used cutting fluids
Aither a=ueous based solutions or cutting oils

5all into three categories


'utting oils Amulsifiable oils 'hemical (synthetic cutting fluids

*il Categories
!ulfuri)ed mineral oils
'ontain <*7 to <47 sulfur %ight-colored and transparent !tains copper and alloys

!ulfochlorinated mineral oils


37 sulfur and 87 chlorine Prevent excessive built-up edges from forming

!ulfochlorinated fatty oil blends


'ontain more sulfur than other types

,nacti#e Cutting *ils


Oils will not dar#en copper strip immersed in them for 3 hours at 282B5 'ontained sulfur is natural
Termed inactive because sulfur so firmly attached to oil C very little released

5our general categories


!traight mineral oils0 fatty oils0 fatty and mineral oil blends0 sulfuri)ed fatty-mineral oil blend

)mulsi(iable 5Soluble6 *ils


"ineral oils containing soapli#e material that ma#es them soluble in water and causes them to adhere to wor#piece Amulsifiers brea# oil into minute particles and #eep them separated in water
!upplied in concentrated form (8-* @866 water

1ood cooling and lubricating =ualities 9sed at high cutting speeds0 low cutting pressures

%unctions o( a Cutting %luid


Prime functions
Provide cooling Provide lubrication

Other functions
Prolong cutting-tool life Provide rust control ,esist rancidity

%unctions o( a Cutting %luid7 Cooling


&eat has definite bearing on cutting-tool wear
!mall reduction will greatly extend tool life

Two sources of heat during cutting action


Plastic deformation of metal
Occurs immediately ahead of cutting tool .ccounts for 2@3 to 3@$ of heat

5riction from chip sliding along cutting-tool face

+ater most effective for reducing heat (rust

%unctions o( a Cutting %luid7 Lubrication


,educes friction between chip and tool face
!hear plane becomes shorter .rea where plastic deformation occurs correspondingly smaller

Axtreme-pressure lubricants reduce amount of heat-producing friction AP chemicals of synthetic fluids combine chemically with sheared metal of chip to form solid compounds (allow chip to slide

Cutting-Tool Li(e
&eat and friction prime causes of cuttingtool brea#down ,educe temperature by as little as *6B50 life of cutting tool increases fivefold (uilt-up edge
Pieces of metal weld themselves to tool face (ecomes large and flat along tool face0 effective ra#e angle of cutting tool decreased

"pplication o( Cutting %luids


'utting-tool life and machining operations influenced by way cutting fluid applied 'opious stream under low pressure so wor# and tool well covered
>nside diameter of supply no))le D width of cutting tool .pplied to where chip being formed

Milling
5ace milling
,ing-type distributor recommended to flood cutter completely Eeeps each tooth of cutter immersed in cutting fluid at all times

!lab milling
5luid directing to both sides of cutter by fan-shaped no))les D width of cutter
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