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VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

STATICS
CHAPTER
5
Distributed Forces:
1. Centroids and Centers
of Gravity
2. Moment of Inertia of
Areas
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Contents
Centroids and Center of Gravity
First Moments of Areas &
Lines
Centroids of Common Shapes
of Areas
Centroids of Common Shapes
of Lines
Composite Plates & Areas
Determination of Centroids by
Integration
Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus
Distributed Loads on Beams
Distributed Force: Centroids and Center of Gravity S
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5 - 3
It is expected that students will be able to:
Describe the concept of centroids and center of gravity
Calculate the centroids and center of gravity
Calculate the moment of inertia

Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
Topic Outcomes S
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Introduction
The earth exerts a gravitational force on each of particle
forming a rigid body. These large number of small forces
can be replace by a single equivalent force which is the
weight of the body, W and applied at the center of gravity
for the body.
2 main ideas of the chapter:
a. Determination of the center of gravity (centroid of
an area) of plate or wire: The concept of the first
moment of for a plate or moment at given axis for
a wire is used to locate the centroid.
b. Determination of the area of a surface of revolution
or the volume of a body of revolution by Theorems
of Pappus-Guldinus
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Center of Gravity
Center of gravity of a
plate
}

}

= A =
= A =
dW y W y W y M
dW x W x W x M
x
y
:
:
Center of gravity of a
wire
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
The moment of resultant force W equal to the sum of
the corresponding moments of elemental force W.
From that we can obtain coordinate center of gravity
( , )
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Centroids and First Moments of Areas and Lines
( ) ( )
}
}
}
=
=
=
dA y A y
dA x A x
dA t x At x
Centroid of an area
( ) ( )
}
}
}
}
=
=
=
=
dL y L y
dL x L x
dL a x La x
dW x W x

Centroid of a line
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
Magnitude of weight, W
plate of area total
plate of thickness
e unit volum per weight
=
=
=
=
A
t
tA W
Coordinate ( , ) is known as centroid
C of the area A for a homogenous plate
and centroid C of the line L for a
homogeneous wire.
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Both integrals are known as the first moment of the area A with
respect to y axis, Qy and first moment of the area A with
respect to x axis, Qx, respectively.




The first moments of the area A can be expressed in area and
coordinates of its centroids


The coordinates of the centeroid of an area can be obtained by
dividing the first moment of area by the area
First Moments of Areas and Lines
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
Qx axis x respect to A with area the of moment first
Qy axis y respect to A with area the of moment first
= = =
= = =
}
}
dA y A y
dA x A x
A y Q
A x Q
x
y
=
=
y
A
Q
x
A
Q
x
y
= = S
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When an area or line is symmetry, its first moment is zero and
its centroid is located on axis BB
An area is said to be symmetric with
respect to an axis BB if for every
point P there exists a point P such
that perpendicular PP is divided into
two equal parts by BB.
First Moments of Areas and Lines
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
If an area possesses
two lines of symmetry,
its centroid lies at their
intersection C.
The centroid of the area coincides with the
center of symmetry O. S
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Centroids of Common Shapes of Areas
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Centroids of Common Shapes of Lines
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Composite Plates and Areas
Composite plates


=
=
W y W Y
W x W X
Composite
homogenous area
x
y
Q A y A Y
Q A x A X
= =
= =


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Sample Problem 4.1
For the plane area shown,
determine the first moments
with respect to the x and y
axes and the location of the
centroid.
SOLUTION:
Divide the area into a triangle,
rectangle, and semicircle with a
circular cutout.
Compute the coordinates of the
area centroid by dividing the first
moments by the total area.
Find the total area and first
moments of the triangle,
rectangle, and semicircle.
Subtract the area and first
moment of the circular cutout.
Calculate the first moments of
each area with respect to the
axes.
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Sample Problem 4.1
3 3
3 3
mm 10 2 . 506
mm 10 7 . 757
+ =
+ =
y
x
Q
Q
Find the total area and first moments
of the triangle, rectangle, and
semicircle. Subtract the area and first
moment of the circular cutout.
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Sample Problem 4.1
2 3
3 3
mm 10 13.828
mm 10 7 . 757

+
= =

A
A x
X
mm 8 . 54 = X
2 3
3 3
mm 10 13.828
mm 10 2 . 506

+
= =

A
A y
Y
mm 6 . 36 = Y
Compute the coordinates of the
area centroid by dividing the
total first moments by the total
area.
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Determination of Centroids by Integration
The coordinate are obtained by expressing the first moments of
the entire area is equal to the sum (integral) of corresponding
moments of elements of area.
( )
( ) ydx
y
dA y A y Q
ydx x
dA x A x Q
el x
el y
}
}
}
}
=
= =
=
= =
2
( ) | |
( ) | | dy x a y
dA y A y Q
dy x a
x a
dA x A x Q
el y
el x
=
= =

+
=
= =
}
}
}
}
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
}
}
}
}
u u
u u
d r
r
dA y A y
d r
r
dA x A x
el
el
2
2
2
1
sin
3
2
2
1
cos
3
2
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Application: Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus
Surface of revolution is generated by
rotating a plane curve, L about a fixed
axis.
Area of a surface of revolution
is equal to the length of the
generating curve times the
distance traveled by the
centroid through the rotation.
L y A t 2 =
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Application: Theorems of Pappus-Guldinus
Body of revolution is generated by
rotating a plane area, A about a fixed
axis.
Volume of a body of
revolution is equal to the
generating area times the
distance traveled by the
centroid through the rotation.
A y V t 2 =
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Sample Problem 4.3
The outside diameter of a
pulley is 0.1 m, and the cross
section of its rim is as shown.
Knowing that the pulley is
made of steel and that the
density of steel is
determine the mass and
weight of the rim.
3 3
m kg 10 85 . 7 =
SOLUTION:
Apply the theorem of Pappus-
Guldinus to evaluate the
volumes (Volume of a body of
revolution).
Multiply by density and
acceleration to get the mass
and weight of the rim.
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
CAUTION!!
You have not been given
the thickness of the rim
to calculate its volume. S
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Sample Problem 4.3
SOLUTION:
Apply the theorem of Pappus-
Guldinus to evaluate the volumes or
for the rectangular rim section and
the inner cutout section. Subtract
the inner section.
( )( )
|
.
|

\
|
= =

3
3 9 3 6 3 3
mm m 10 mm 10 65 . 7 m kg 10 85 . 7 V m
kg 0 . 60 = m
( )( )
2
s m 81 . 9 kg 0 . 60 = = mg W
N 589 = W
Multiply by density and acceleration
to get the mass and acceleration.
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Application: Distributed Loads on Beams
A distributed load is represented by
plotting the load, w per unit length, x
(N/m). The total load, W is equal to the
area under the load curve, A.
} }
= = = A dA dx w W
L
0
( )
( ) A x dA x A OP
dW x W OP
L
= =
=
}
}
0
The total load, W also can be replace by
a single concentrated load which only
equivalent considering fee body diagram
to the entire beam.
Its magnitude is equal to the area under
the load curve, A and a line of action
passing through the area centroid, .
Distributed Force: Centroids and Centers of Gravity
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Sample Problem 4.4
A beam supports a distributed
load as shown. Determine the
equivalent concentrated load
and the reactions at the
supports.
SOLUTION:
The magnitude of the
concentrated load is equal to the
total load or the area under the
curve.
The line of action of the
concentrated load passes
through the centroid of the
area under the curve.
Determine the support
reactions by summing
moments about the beam
ends.
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Sample Problem 4.4
SOLUTION:
The magnitude of the concentrated load
is equal to the total load or the area
under the curve.
kN 0 . 18 = F
The line of action of the concentrated load
passes through the centroid of the area
under the curve.
kN 18
m kN 63
= X
m 5 . 3 = X
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Sample Problem 4.4
Determine the support reactions by
summing moments about the beam
ends.
( ) ( )( ) 0 m .5 3 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = =

y A
B M
kN 5 . 10 =
y
B
( ) ( )( ) 0 m .5 3 m 6 kN 18 m 6 : 0 = + =

y B
A M
kN 5 . 7 =
y
A
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Moment of Inertia of Areas
Moment of Inertia by Integration
Polar Moment of Inertia
Radius of Gyration of Area
Parallel Axis Theorem
Moments of Inertia of Composite Area
Distributed Force: Moment of Inertia of Areas
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Consider distributed forces whose
magnitudes are proportional to the
elemental areas on which they act and
also vary linearly with the distance of y
from a given axis.
F A
A A
R is the resultant of which then
reduced to a couple that provide a
moment couple M. The moment called as
the moment of inertia.
inertia) of (moment moment second
axis) on x (centroid 0 moment first
2 2
= =
= = = =
} }
} }
dA y dA y k M
Q dA y dA y k R
x
Moment of Inertia of Area
F A
Distributed Force: Moment of Inertia of Areas
A F A = A kyS
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Moment of Inertia of an Area by Integration
Second moments or moments of
inertia of an area with respect to
the x and y axes,
} }
= = dA x I dA y I
y x
2 2
Evaluation of the integrals is
simplified by choosing dA to be a
thin strip parallel to one of the
coordinate axes.
For a rectangular area,
3
3
1
0
2 2
bh bdy y dA y I
h
x
= = =
} }
The formula for rectangular areas
may also be applied to strips
parallel to the axes,
dx y x dA x dI dx y dI
y x
2 2 3
3
1
= = =
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Polar Moment of Inertia
The polar moment of inertia is an
important parameter in problems
involving torsion of cylindrical shafts
and rotations of slabs.
}
= dA r J
2
0
The polar moment of inertia is related
to the rectangular moments of inertia,
( )
x y
I I
dA y dA x dA y x dA r J
+ =
+ = + = =
} } } }
2 2 2 2 2
0
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Radius of Gyration of an Area
Consider area A with moment of inertia
I
x
. Imagine that the area is
concentrated in a thin strip parallel to
the x axis with equivalent I
x
.
A
I
k A k I
x
x x x
= =
2
k
x
= radius of gyration with
respect to the x axis
Similarly,
A
J
k A k J
A
I
k A k I
O
O O O
y
y y y
= =
= =
2
2
2 2 2
y x O
k k k + =
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The radius of gyration of an
area A with respect to the x
axis is defined as
the distance k
x
, where
I
x
= k
x
A. With similar
definitions for the radius of
gyration of A with respect
to the y axis and with
respect to O, we have
k
x
=
2
I
x

A
k
y
=
I
y

A
k
O
=
J
O

A
y
x
k
x
O
A
Radius of Gyration of an Area
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Parallel Axis Theorem
Consider moment of inertia I of an
area A with respect to the axis AA
}
= dA y I
2
The axis BB passes through the area
centroid and is called a centroidal
axis. is moment inertia of the area
with respect to BB is parallel to AA .
( )
} } }
} }
+
'
+
'
=
+
'
= =
dA d dA y d dA y
dA d y dA y I
2 2
2 2
2
2
Ad I I + =
parallel axis
theorem
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Parallel Axis Theorem
Moment of inertia I
T
of a circular
area with respect to a tangent to
the circle,
( )
4
4
5
2 2 4
4
1
2
r
r r r Ad I I
T
t
t t
=
+ = + =
Moment of inertia of a triangle with
respect to a centroidal axis,
( )
3
36
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
12
1
2
2
bh
h bh bh Ad I I
Ad I I
A A B B
B B A A
=
= =
+ =
' '
' '
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Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a given
axis is obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the
component areas A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, ... , with respect to the same
axis.
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Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
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Sample Problem 4.7
The strength of a W14x38 rolled
steel beam is increased by
attaching a plate to its upper
flange.
Determine the moment of inertia
and radius of gyration with respect
to an axis which is parallel to the
plate and passes through the
centroid of the section.
SOLUTION:
Determine location of the
centroid of composite section
with respect to a coordinate
system with origin at the
centroid of the beam section.
Apply the parallel axis theorem
to determine moments of
inertia of beam section and
plate with respect to composite
section centroidal axis.
Calculate the radius of gyration
from the moment of inertia of
the composite section.
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Sample Problem 4.7
SOLUTION:
Determine location of the centroid of
composite section with respect to a
coordinate system with origin at the
centroid of the beam section.
12 . 50 95 . 17
0 0 11.20 Section Beam
12 . 50 425 . 7 6.75 Plate
in , in. , in , Section
3 2
= =

A y A
A y y A
in. 792 . 2
in 17.95
in 12 . 50
2
3
= = = =


A
A y
Y A y A Y
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Sample Problem 4.7
Apply the parallel axis theorem to
determine moments of inertia of beam
section and plate with respect to composite
section centroidal axis.
( )( )
( )( ) ( )( )
4
2
3
4
3
12
1
2
plate ,
4
2 2
section beam ,
in 2 . 145
792 . 2 425 . 7 75 . 6 9
in 3 . 472
792 . 2 20 . 11 385
=
+ = + =
=
+ = + =
'
'
Ad I I
Y A I I
x x
x x
Calculate the radius of gyration from the
moment of inertia of the composite section.
2
4
in 17.95
in 5 . 617
= =
'
'
A
I
k
x
x
in. 87 . 5 =
' x
k
2 . 145 3 . 472
plate , section beam ,
+ = + =
' ' ' x x x
I I I
4
in 618 =
' x
I
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Sample Problem 4.8
Determine the moment of
inertia of the shaded area
with respect to the x axis.
SOLUTION:
Compute the moments of inertia
of the bounding rectangle and
half-circle with respect to the x
axis.
The moment of inertia of the
shaded area is obtained by
subtracting the moment of inertia
of the half-circle from the moment
of inertia of the rectangle.
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Sample Problem 4.8
SOLUTION:
Compute the moments of inertia of the
bounding rectangle and half-circle with
respect to the x axis.
Rectangle:
( )( )
4 6
3
1
3
3
1
mm 10 2 . 138 120 240 = = = bh I
x
Half-circle:
moment of inertia with respect to AA,
( )
4 6 4
8
1
4
8
1
mm 10 76 . 25 90 = = =
'
t tr I
A A
( )( )
( )
2 3
2
2
1
2
2
1
mm 10 72 . 12
90
mm 81.8 a - 120 b
mm 2 . 38
3
90 4
3
4
=
= =
= =
= = =
t t
t t
r A
r
a
moment of inertia with respect to x,
( )( )
4 6
3 6 2
mm 10 20 . 7
10 72 . 12 10 76 . 25
=
= =
' '
Aa I I
A A x
moment of inertia with respect to x,
( )( )
4 6
2 3 6 2
mm 10 3 . 92
8 . 81 10 72 . 12 10 20 . 7
=
+ = + =
'
Ab I I
x x
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Sample Problem 4.8
The moment of inertia of the shaded area is
obtained by subtracting the moment of inertia
of the half-circle from the moment of inertia of
the rectangle.
4 6
mm 10 9 . 45 =
x
I
x
I =
4 6
mm 10 2 . 138

4 6
mm 10 3 . 92
Distributed Force: Moment of Inertia of Areas