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CHAPTER 1:
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE & CURRENT
1. Introduction
2. Generating AC Voltages
3. Waveform Terms & Definitions
4. Voltages & Currents as function of
time
5. Average & R.M.S. Values
6. Phasor Representation
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Objectives
At the end of the chapter, student should be able
to:
describe the principle of ac voltage and current
generation.
calculate RMS and Average values for voltage
and current.
explain and analyze the phasor representation.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Why AC is required? Whereas we already
have DC
DC cannot be transmitted as economically as AC
transmission systems
Circuit Theory 1 & Engineering Math- important
Electrical unit, Ohms Law, Kirchoffs Law etc.
Abbreviations & Symbols AC, DC
AC can be step-up and down
Nowadays, many electrical appliances are using AC
system
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Most alternating systems operate on a
sinusoidal basis.
Sinusoidal waveform are tricky things to
draw. By using phasor, it can be represent
as straight lines.
By joining up such lines, we can undertake
apparently difficult additions and
subtractions and this simplifies the later
analyses which will be considered.
1. INTRODUCTION
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What is AC system??
The magnitude of the voltage/current vary
in a repetitive manner. Eg: sinusoidal
wave, square wave, triangular wave
What is the characteristic of the AC
current/voltage?
It flows first in one direction and then in the
other. The cycle of variations is repeated
exactly for each direction.
1. INTRODUCTION
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2. GENERATING AC VOLTAGES
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How to turn the
coils?
Hydro
Wind
Geothermal
Tidal
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Magnitude of the resulting voltage is proportional to the
rate at which flux lines are cut (Faraday's Law)
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Generation of an alternating e.m.f
- E.m.f is induced when the flux
is being cut
- No e.m.f is being generated in
the loop , if the loop AB are
moving parallel to the direction
of the magnetic flux.- no flux is
being cut. [(a)&(d)]
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Sine wave of induced e.m.f
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Formula of Induced EMF
Angular velocity = AL
AM = AL sin = X sin
Assumption: l = length of conductor of one side (m),
B= flux density (T)
So; total e.m.f. generated = 2 B l X sin (V)
t R I
m
e 2 cos 1
2
1
2
=
t
R I R I
m m
e 2 cos
2 2
2 2
=
To get the average value of P(t), the term cos 2 t will be
zero, thus
P
ave
=
2
2
R I
m
P
average
dc
= P
average ac
I
2
R
=
2
2
R I
m
I
2
2
2
m
I
=
m
m
rms
I 707 0
2
I
I I . = = =
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}
= =
T
rms
d i
T
I I
0
2
1
u
m
m
I
I
I 707 . 0
2
= =
- So, the r.m.s value of a sinusoidal current is
or,
Likewise for the average voltage and rms voltage.
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av
rms
value
value
= Form factor
rms
value
value
max
= Peak or crest factor
Form factor and peak factor
Form Factor is the ratio between the average value and the RMS value.
Crest Factor is the ratio between the R.M.S. value and the Peak value
of the waveform .
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6. Phasor Representation
Representation of an alternating quantity by a phasor
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Phasor representation of an
alternating quantity for the
first half cycle
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Phasor Representation
Phasor Magnitude & Angle
It is actually a complex number
Generally written as e = E
p
Z u and I = I
p
Z u in phasor form
In complex form, e = E
p
cos u + iE
p
sin u
I = I
p
cos u + iI
p
sin u
e (t) = E
p
sin et e = E
p
Z 0 (V)
i (t) = I
p
sin et I = I
p
Z 0 (A)
Phasor diagram for above:
E
p
I
p
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i = I
m
sin(et + u ) = I
m
Z u
i = I
m
sin(et - u ) = I
m
Z -u
Phasor
diagram
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Example:
Phase different between Voltage and current waveforms are 40, and voltage lags.
Using current as the reference, sketch the phasor diagram and the corresponding
waveform.
v(t) = Vm sin(et - 40)
Im
Vm
j e
40
40
i(t) = I
m
sin et
Repeat the above if the voltage leads by the same angle.
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Example:
Given v = 20 sin (et + 30) and I =18 sin (et - 40), draw the phasor diagram,
determine phase relationships, and sketch the waveforms.
V leads I by 70
0
or
I lags V by 70
0
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Addition & Subtraction of Phasors
Addition of phasors Substraction of phasors
C=A+B D=A-B
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Addition & Subtraction of Phasors
Vector Breakup Method
The instantaneous values of two alternating voltages are represented respectively
by v
1
=60 sin u (V) and V
2
= 40 sin (u - t/3) (V). Derive an expression for the
instantaneous value of :
a) the sum;
b) the difference of these voltage (V
1
V
2
)
V
1
= 60V
V
2
= 40V
V
1
+ V
2
First assume up positive, down negative
Right positive and left negative
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V
1
= 60V
V
2
= 40V
V
1
+ V
2
Horizontal component:
For V
1
= + 60V
For V
2
= cos 60
0
x 40 = + 20V
Total Horizontal component = +80V (Means 80V to the right)
Vertical component:
For V
1
= 0V
For V
2
= - 40 sin 60
0
= - 34.64V
Total Vertical component = - 34.64V (Means 34.64V down)
80V
34.64V
V
1
+ V
2
V
1
+ V
2
=
2 2
64 34 80 . +
= 87.2V
?
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= 87.2V
80V
34.64V
V
1
+ V
2
= tan
-1
34.64/80
= - 23.41
0
V
1
+ V
2
=87.2 sin (u - 23.41
0
) (V)
b) V
1
- V
2
= V
1
+ (- V
2
)
V
1
= 60V
V
2
= 40V
V
1
+ V
2
-V
2
= 40V
V1 + (- V2)
60
0
Apply the same steps as in
previous
Try by yourselves
Next, try to sketch the waveform
for both
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The instantaneous values of two alternating voltages are represented
respectively by v
1
=40 sin u (V) and V
2
= 60 sin (u + t/3) (V). Derive an
expression for the instantaneous value of :
a) the sum;
b) the difference of these voltage
Exercise