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CHAPTER 1:
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE & CURRENT
1. Introduction
2. Generating AC Voltages
3. Waveform Terms & Definitions
4. Voltages & Currents as function of
time
5. Average & R.M.S. Values
6. Phasor Representation

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Objectives
At the end of the chapter, student should be able
to:
describe the principle of ac voltage and current
generation.
calculate RMS and Average values for voltage
and current.
explain and analyze the phasor representation.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Why AC is required? Whereas we already
have DC
DC cannot be transmitted as economically as AC
transmission systems

Circuit Theory 1 & Engineering Math- important
Electrical unit, Ohms Law, Kirchoffs Law etc.
Abbreviations & Symbols AC, DC
AC can be step-up and down
Nowadays, many electrical appliances are using AC
system
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Most alternating systems operate on a
sinusoidal basis.
Sinusoidal waveform are tricky things to
draw. By using phasor, it can be represent
as straight lines.
By joining up such lines, we can undertake
apparently difficult additions and
subtractions and this simplifies the later
analyses which will be considered.
1. INTRODUCTION
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What is AC system??
The magnitude of the voltage/current vary
in a repetitive manner. Eg: sinusoidal
wave, square wave, triangular wave
What is the characteristic of the AC
current/voltage?
It flows first in one direction and then in the
other. The cycle of variations is repeated
exactly for each direction.
1. INTRODUCTION
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2. GENERATING AC VOLTAGES
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How to turn the
coils?
Hydro
Wind
Geothermal
Tidal
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Magnitude of the resulting voltage is proportional to the
rate at which flux lines are cut (Faraday's Law)

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Generation of an alternating e.m.f
- E.m.f is induced when the flux
is being cut

- No e.m.f is being generated in
the loop , if the loop AB are
moving parallel to the direction
of the magnetic flux.- no flux is
being cut. [(a)&(d)]
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Sine wave of induced e.m.f
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Formula of Induced EMF
Angular velocity = AL
AM = AL sin = X sin
Assumption: l = length of conductor of one side (m),
B= flux density (T)
So; total e.m.f. generated = 2 B l X sin (V)

X is also b n b is breadth / width of the loop in meters,


n is the speed of rotation in rps
e = 2 B l b n sin (V)

For N numbers of coil, e = 2 B N A n sin (V)
Peak value E
p
= 2B(NA)n (V)

A=area of loop
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Example:
A coil of 160 turns is rotated at 1500 rpm in a magnetic field having a uniform
density of 0.15 T. The mean area per turn is 50 cm2. Calculate
a) the frequency;
b) the period;
c) the maximum value of the induced emf;
d) the value of the induced emf when the coil has rotated
through 30 from the position of zero emf.
a) Frequency, f = 1500/60 = 25 Hz;
d) e = 2 B N A n sin = 18.84 x sin 30
0
= 9.42 V
b) Period, T = 1/f = 1/25 = 0.04s;
c) E
m
= 2 B N A n = 2 (0.15) (160) (50x10-4) (1500/60)
= 18.84 V;
Solution:
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p
n
- The generator shown before, has two poles or one pair of poles.

- Machines can have two or more pairs of poles. If an a.c generator has
pairs of poles and if its speed is revolutions per second, then
frequency no. of cycles per second
= no. of cycles per revolution x no. of revolutions per second.

f
pn
=
Hz
Repeat the previous example if the generator uses six poles of magnet.
= f
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3. Waveform Terms & Definitions
Terms:
1. Period,T time taken to complete one cycle (s)
2. Peak value, V
m
or V
p
, I
m
or I
p

3. Peak-to-peak value, V
p-p
or I
p-p

4. Frequency, f Number of cycles that occur in 1 second (Hz)
5. Amplitude distance from its average to its peak

f
T
1
=
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Example:
Question:
i- Period
ii- Peak value
iii- Peak to peak value
iv- Frequency
v- Amplitude
Answer:
i- 10ms
ii- 10V
iii- 20V
iv- 100Hz
v- 10V
Answer:
i- 10ms
ii- 5V
iii-10V
iv-100Hz
v- 5V
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Example:
Find
i- Period
ii- Peak value
iii- Peak to peak value
iv- Frequency
The waveform at the left was
obtained from an oscilloscope with
the knobs turned at the following
positions:
Vertical axis 5V/div
Horizontal axis 10ms/div
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4. Voltages & Currents as function of time
e = 2 B N A n sin (V)
Previously weve seen that:
& E
p
= 2 B N A n (V)
e = E
p
sin (V)
The angular velocity, =
t
u
Rad/s
The angular velocity, = 2 f Rad/s
e = E
p
sin t (V)
At the end, alternating voltage and current can be formed as function of time as:
e (t) = E
p
sin t (V)
i (t) = I
p
sin t (A)
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Example:
Answer:
(i) If Em=100V, determine the coil voltage at: (a) 30
(b) 330
(ii) If the coil rotates at = 300
0
/s, how long does it take to complete 1
revolution?

(i) (a) E
30
= 50Volt
(b) E
330
= -50Volt

(ii) 1.2 sec
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Phase Shift/difference:
Phase shift occur when there are L or/and C exist in the
circuit
3 important situations

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In phase:
V and I are in phase since the angular displacement is zero.
Lead:
V is leading i for certain amount of angular displacement, u.
Or
Lag:
i is lagging V for certain amount of angular displacement, u.
Lead:
i is leading V for certain amount of angular displacement, u.
Or
Lag:
V is lagging i for certain amount of angular displacement, u.

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Phase lead or lag caused by C and L components
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5. Average & R.M.S. Values
Average
=
base of l engt h
curve under area
For a complete sinusoidal waveform, average value = 0
since it is symmetrical.
Area for half cycle of sine wave is
0
Ip
t
|
p p p
I I d I 2 cos sin
0
0
= =
}
t
t
u u u
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Therefore, average value for a full wave rectifier:
0
Ip
t 2t
Iave
Full wave average
( )
p
p
ave
I
I
I 637 . 0
2
2 2
= =
t
Furthermore, average value for half wave rectifier:
t
0
Ip
Iave

Half- wave average
p
p
ave
I
I
I 318 . 0
2
2
= =
t
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R.M.S. (Root Mean Square)
Also known as effective value
Value to do useful work
It is an equivalent dc value E.g: 240Vac capable of producing the
same average power as 240 volts of steady dc

E R
i P
t
P
dc
= P
ave

P
dc
= P
ave
= I
2
R

For dc
For ac
E R
i P
t
P
ave
=
P(t)
2
2
R I
m
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P(t) = i
2
R = (I
m
sin t)
2
R = I
m
2
R sin
2
t
( )|

t R I
m
e 2 cos 1
2
1
2

=
t
R I R I
m m
e 2 cos
2 2
2 2


=
To get the average value of P(t), the term cos 2 t will be
zero, thus
P
ave
=
2
2
R I
m

P
average

dc
= P
average ac

I
2
R

=
2
2
R I
m
I
2

2
2
m
I
=
m
m
rms
I 707 0
2
I
I I . = = =
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}
= =
T
rms
d i
T
I I
0
2
1
u
m
m
I
I
I 707 . 0
2
= =
- So, the r.m.s value of a sinusoidal current is
or,

Likewise for the average voltage and rms voltage.
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av
rms
value
value
= Form factor
rms
value
value
max
= Peak or crest factor
Form factor and peak factor

Form Factor is the ratio between the average value and the RMS value.
Crest Factor is the ratio between the R.M.S. value and the Peak value
of the waveform .
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6. Phasor Representation
Representation of an alternating quantity by a phasor
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Phasor representation of an
alternating quantity for the
first half cycle
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Phasor Representation
Phasor Magnitude & Angle
It is actually a complex number






Generally written as e = E
p
Z u and I = I
p
Z u in phasor form
In complex form, e = E
p
cos u + iE
p
sin u
I = I
p
cos u + iI
p
sin u

e (t) = E
p
sin et e = E
p
Z 0 (V)
i (t) = I
p
sin et I = I
p
Z 0 (A)
Phasor diagram for above:
E
p
I
p
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i = I
m
sin(et + u ) = I
m
Z u

i = I
m
sin(et - u ) = I
m
Z -u
Phasor
diagram
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Example:
Phase different between Voltage and current waveforms are 40, and voltage lags.
Using current as the reference, sketch the phasor diagram and the corresponding
waveform.
v(t) = Vm sin(et - 40)
Im
Vm
j e
40
40
i(t) = I
m
sin et
Repeat the above if the voltage leads by the same angle.
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Example:
Given v = 20 sin (et + 30) and I =18 sin (et - 40), draw the phasor diagram,
determine phase relationships, and sketch the waveforms.
V leads I by 70
0
or

I lags V by 70
0

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Addition & Subtraction of Phasors
Addition of phasors Substraction of phasors
C=A+B D=A-B
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Addition & Subtraction of Phasors
Vector Breakup Method
The instantaneous values of two alternating voltages are represented respectively
by v
1
=60 sin u (V) and V
2
= 40 sin (u - t/3) (V). Derive an expression for the
instantaneous value of :
a) the sum;
b) the difference of these voltage (V
1
V
2
)
V
1
= 60V

V
2
= 40V

V
1
+ V
2
First assume up positive, down negative
Right positive and left negative
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V
1
= 60V

V
2
= 40V

V
1
+ V
2
Horizontal component:
For V
1
= + 60V
For V
2
= cos 60
0
x 40 = + 20V
Total Horizontal component = +80V (Means 80V to the right)
Vertical component:
For V
1
= 0V
For V
2
= - 40 sin 60
0
= - 34.64V
Total Vertical component = - 34.64V (Means 34.64V down)
80V
34.64V
V
1
+ V
2
V
1
+ V
2
=

2 2
64 34 80 . +
= 87.2V

?
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= 87.2V
80V
34.64V
V
1
+ V
2
= tan
-1
34.64/80
= - 23.41
0

V
1
+ V
2
=87.2 sin (u - 23.41
0
) (V)
b) V
1
- V
2
= V
1
+ (- V
2
)
V
1
= 60V

V
2
= 40V

V
1
+ V
2
-V
2
= 40V
V1 + (- V2)
60
0

Apply the same steps as in
previous
Try by yourselves
Next, try to sketch the waveform
for both
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The instantaneous values of two alternating voltages are represented
respectively by v
1
=40 sin u (V) and V
2
= 60 sin (u + t/3) (V). Derive an
expression for the instantaneous value of :
a) the sum;
b) the difference of these voltage
Exercise