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Measurement While Drilling Overview

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MWD Functions
Real-time surveying
Wellbore positioning Directional Drilling

Real-time formation measurement

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transmission
Correlation Geology Petrophysics

Geosteering

Real-time drilling mechanics data


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Help Drilling process

Schlumberger MWD Systems


SlimPulse Hole sizes From 4 to 30
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Impulse

From 5 to 7

PowerPulse
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From 7 to 30

Schlumberger MWD Systems (Services)


MWD Systems Transmission Rate (Bit per second)
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Combinability

Remarks

ARC (gamma/resistivity) SLIMPulse 0.5 AIM (inclination)-PWD

Retrievable Battery powered Combine both MWD and ARC Turbine powered

IMPulse

0.5 - 3

ADN4 (Neutron/density)

PowerPulse

0.5 -16

All LWD tools

Turbine powered

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MWD Surveying Is it important? (1)


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While Drilling......... We want to 1- Control the position of wellbore versus Geological model 2- React when unexpected events are encountered 3- Anticipate unexpected structural events
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WELL

Well 13/5-6 - A-4 H

Magnetic Parameters Model: BGGM 2000 Dip: 71.719 Mag Dec: -3.592 Date: December 22, 2000 FS: 50166.9 nT

MWD Surveying Is it important? (2)


FIELD STRUCTURE

15/5 and 15/6 Area

Glitne

Surface Location Lat: N58 42 44.251 Lon: E1 40 5.641 North: 6508932.00 m East: 422849.00 m Grid Conv: -1.1381 Scale Fact:0.9997

Miscellaneous Slot: Slot A-4 H Plan# : A4H rev9 160101 Elev Ref: Platform Elevation(25.00m above MSL) Date Drawn: 06:16:00PM 30-Jan-2001

-1200

-1000

-800

-600

-400

-200

200

400

600

800

400
A-1 H Survey
NORTH >>>

A-2 AH Survey

SPIDER VIEW Scale (1 cm = 100 m)

1600

A-3 H Plan
1500
1400

400

1300

200

12

00

200

2100

21

77

2000

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1600

0
1700
1800

1900

0
1200

1600

1700

1800

1500

1400

-200

Default Color Main Proposal Survey


20 00

1300

19 00

A-2 H Pilot Survey


2325
2300

-200

2100

2200

-400
<<< SOUTH

00

21

00

1300

-400

21

00

20

20

00
1400

19 00 0

15

1800

00

16 00

1700

-600

A4H Plan

-600

-1200

-1000

-800

-600
<<< WEST

-400

-200

0
EAST >>>

200

400

600

800

X &Y uncertainties
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Z uncertainty

MWD Surveying D&I Package

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3 magnetometers
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3 accelerometers

MWD Surveying Affected by?


Magnetic data affected by any magnetic interferences
Bottom Hole assembly Nearby casing Magnetic storms
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Inclinometer data affected by:


Accuracy limit Surveying procedures

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The telemetry Data transmission (1)


The mud pulse system
by the Drilling MUD
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MUD PULSE (positive or negative) MUD SIREN

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The telemetry Data transmission (2)


Mud

Pressure

Positive Pulse: 1 BPS


Time Mud Pressure
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POWERPULSE
Continuous wave: 0.5 to 16 Bits Per Second
Time

Mud

Pressure

Negative Pulse: 2 BPS


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Time

The telemetry Data transmission (3)

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The telemetry Data transmission (4)


MWD+CDR+CDN Frame # Sync/ID/Err gtf PHSF_x RHOS_x RHOL_x TNRA_x PERA_x ATTN_x gtf GRT_x tur_rpm PHSF_x RHOS_x RHOL_x TNRA_x gtf PERA_x CDRSK_x shock_I ATTN_x GRT_x PHSF_x RHOS_x gtf RHOL_x TNRA_x ATTN_x 3 bps UPDATE gtf PHSF_x RHOS_x RHOL_x TNRA_x PERA_x ATTN_x GRT_x shock_I tur_rpm CDRSK_x

CODING PROTOCOLE:
Typical data is 6 to12 bits per word Length of one word depends on the number

and the complexity of the data to transmit


Usual transmission priority is MWD then LWD data

Frame # 24 : 3 bits per second


Programmed before the job

Depends on transmission mode


Adjusted to expected ROP for optimum RT sampling rate May be changed while drilling (depending on contractors) 12 Initials

24 Bits 27 8 10 10 10 10 9 10 8 8 7 10 10 10 10 8 9 2 8 10 8 10 10 8 10 10 10 Secs 22 29 29 29 29 29 44 44 87 87 87

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MWD Surface acquisition


A signal Pressure transducer senses pressure differences Sensed pressures are decoded with the Acquisition System MWD Engineers QC transmission and data Data is displayed on screen, And on paper Logs in the unit And potentially In Cutomers office

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Signal Demodulation Principles


Type of signals
Downhole (MWD-Motor..) Uphole (Pumps-Rig..) Echoes & Reflections Electrical Noise
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Characteristics
Frequencies

Attenuation
Direction
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SNR = Signal Power/Bit Noise Power

SLIMPusle Retrievable MWD Tool (1)

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Adaptable in different collar sizes from 3 to 9


Covers flow ranges between 35 and 1200 GPM Transmission rate of 0.5 BPS Current MWD tool in use in Noyabrsk
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SLIMPusle Retrievable MWD Tool (2)


Measures:
Direction and Inclination Toolface
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Shock Optional gamma ray

Can be combined with:


AIM (at Bit Inclination) and APWD

(Annuallar pressure) or

ARC 375, 475, 675 (multidepth resistivity a

Gamma ray
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IMPusle Tool (1)

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Tool size of 4 to be run in holes between 5 to

7
Combine both MWD and ARC Services Transmission rate between 0.5 and 3 BPS Flow ranges between 130 to 400 GPM Used in conjunction with PowerDrive475 RSS
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IMPusle Tool (2)

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Measures:
Direction and Inclination Toolface Shock Up to 10 Resistivities Gamma ray
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Can be combined with:


AIM4 (at Bit Inclination)
VPWD (Annuallar pressure) Vision ADN4 (azimuthal density/Neutron)

PowerPulse MWD (1)


Measures:
Direction and Inclination Toolface Multiple Shocks Gamma ray Downhole weight on Bit Downhole Torque Collar RPM Turbine RPM Temperature
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MWD for 73/4 in. and larger hole sizes


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MWD Collar sizes between 6 and 9 Fast data update at 0.5 to 16.0 bps

Flow ranges between 275 and 1200 GPM

Drilling Mechanics

PowerPulse MWD (2)


Tool Name ARC Measurements type Gamma ray Multidepth resistivity GVR (RAB) PowerPulse can be combined With all LWD Tools VADN (Vision Density Neutron) ISONIC SMWD (seismic MWD) NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonnance) Azimuthal gamma ray Bit resistivity Highly focused azimuthal resistivities Density, Neutron, Pef, ultrasonic caliper Delta-t Check shots Free water Tool size 6 , 8 , 9 6 , 8 Remarks 2 MHz and 400 KHz propagation resistivity. Laterolog tool
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4 , 6 , 8 6 , 8 5 , 8 6

Azimuthal capability Monopole SONIC tools

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