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What are the other components of a sentence?

Clauses and PHRASES

Clause: Group of words that CONTAIN a subject and a verb (not necessarily a SENTENCE) Quadree dunks - Sub: Verb: Because the dog barks - Sub: Phrase: Group of words that LACKS Verb: either a subject, a verb, or both. runs into the darkness - Lacks: Quadrees Uncle Johnny Lacks:

Color Code the Phrases and Clauses


on the spot driving the car the team wins to sleep while I jump Coreys red coat falling on the floor since Akron closes dropped a beat teachers need books

Types of Phrases
Prepositional Phrase: A phrase with a

preposition and a NOUN: Quadree went into the crib.

Adjective phrase: Describes a NOUN The boy sitting by the Lincoln is Quadree.
Adverb phrase: Describes a VERB, adjective, or adverb Quadree danced with grace.

Prepositional Phrase
A preposition attached to a noun and describes

the subject or the verb.


Trevel ran to the bathroom.
What/who is the prepositional phrase describing?

It is describing to WHERE Trevel ran (ADVERB).

The classroom on the English hallway with the maroon and gold wall is the coolest room.
What are the prepositional phrases describing? They are describing which classroom is the coolest (ADJECTIVE).

Whats the purpose of a Prep. phrase?


Prep. phrases add detail to the sentence.

Frank prattled.
I want to know what he prattled about. Lets add a phrase to the sentence.

Frank prattled about the I want to know where he prattled. Lets add a phrase to the game. sentence. Frank prattled about the game at CiCis. I want to know when he prattled. Lets add a phrase to the On Wednesday, Frank prattled about taxes at CiCis . I want to know to whom he prattled. Lets add a phrase to the
sentence. sentence.

On Wednesday, Frank prattled about taxes at CiCis to Jennifer.

Identify the Prepositional Phrase.


1. 2. 3. 4.

The Grammys honored teachers on the stage. I want your help with this homework. With ease, my father built our house. Andy Griffith died at age eighty.

Fill in the Prepositional Phrase:

1. I stand ________________________________. 2. Tyquan can see the trees _____________________________. 3. John tackles the quarter back _____________________________. 4. They found money ____________________________.

Appositive Phrase
Appositive phrase: A noun/pronoun that clarifies

the NOUN beside it (It is surrounded by COMMAS and you must have a specific name). Quadree, a basketball player, writes

poetry. A really gifted student, Mark dunked a ball on Quadree. The Lakers, __________________, lost to the Clippers,__________________.

Identify the Appositive Phrase


1. Jose Martinez, an essayist, was one of Spains 2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7.

best writers. The green turtle, a species of sea turtles, can swim fast. At home, Rachel speaks German, her first language. A dedicated worker, Mr. Walker is the first to arrive at the office each morning. The flowers on the table are from our neighbor, the ones down the street. The stage manager, the new lady, has worked all day on the set. An aspiring writer, Coretta hopes to work for a

Fill in with an Appositive Phrase


1. Karen, ______________, bought a

Hummer 3 for her birthday. 2. The Sampsons live on Hinton Street, _____________ 3. Samson likes books written by James Patterson, ____________. 4. Mount Everest, _______________, is the highest peak in India.

Review Phrases:
Identify and underline the phrase(s) in each sentence: 1. Under the cars hood, youll find the V6 engine, an efficient engine. 2. James, an artist, paints many masterpieces in his spare time. 3. The tools needed for the shelf are on the table, the tall one. 4. Feeling sick, Andrea, a medical student, called out of work. 5. Before the State of the Union Address, my family, a close-knit one, went for a walk around the block.

Types of Phrases
Verbal Phrases:

Participial Phrase: Verbs that end in

ing or ed used as an ADJECTIVE. Dunking the ball, Quadree scored the winning point. The game scheduled at Hanover will be played on Tuesday.

More verbal phrases


Gerund phrase: Verb that ends in ing used as a noun

Alexis tried jumping into the pool.


In thinking of his team, Quadree dunked the ball. Infinitive phrase: To+verb used as a noun, adj., or an adv.

Quadrees dream is to dunk a ball.


Quadree went to dunk the ball, but TruMel blocked

him. Quadree is coming to visit next week.

Infinitive Phrase
Identify the Infinitive Phrase:
1. He went to paint the house last week. 2. After the movies, we need to stop by the grocery

store. 3. The report cards have to be distributed today. 4. If you want to arrive on time, you need to leave Fillearly. in the Infinitive Phrase: 1. The family wants __________________________. 2. My sister loves ____________________________. 3. You cant learn _____________________________. 4. Everyone entered the contest __________________________________.

Independent Clauses
Independent Clause:

Makes COMPLETE sense when it stands alone.

Can be a SENTENCE. Quadree flashes. The dog changes. TruMel skips.

Identify the Independent Clause


1. Gio sleeps on his desk every day.

2. Gio will have a hard time passing if he keeps

falling asleep. 3. He needs to stay awake in this class. 4. Once the field is cleared, the team can come to warm- up. 5. Last night, the Lakers, a basketball team, lost to the Heat, which upsets Gio.

Lets Write Independent Clauses


Subject: Breon Verb: Walk:

_____________________________________________ ________ Subject: Desk Verb: Break _______________________________________________ _________ Your Own: ______________________________________________ Your Own: ______________________________________________

Read the passage. Identify the Independent Clauses. Cross out the Fragments (Incomplete sentences).

(1) Long before Michael Oher made it to


the NFL. (2) He didn't have a family to speak of. (3) He grew up in a rough part of Memphis. (4) The son of a crack-addict mother and an absent father. (5) When he enrolled in high school. (6) He didn't have a permanent home. (7) Then the Tuohy family took him in.

Dependent Clauses
Dependent Clause: Does NOT make complete sense when it stands alone. CANNOT be a sentence.
because Quadree flashes whenever the dog changes which TruMel skips

Dependent Clause: Adjective


- Describes a NOUN
Quadree, who is shorter than TruMel, plays

basketball. Which noun is described by who is shorter than TruMel? Quadree


- The

store, which is down the street, has a lot of customers who purchase lottery tickets.
Which nouns are being described?
Store Customers

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES ARE NOT COMPLETE SENTENCES! THEY ARE FRAGMENTS!!

Identify the Adjective Clauses:


1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

The students who have not turned in their homework will receive a zero. My mother passed the gravy, which was homemade, and accidently spilled it. You need to use the hammer that has a wooden handle. We go to the movies at South Park, which was renovated last year. The blinds that were ordered for the living havent arrived yet.

Fill in with an Adjective Clause: 1. Anyone ________________________________ must sign up in guidance. 2. The cheetah, ___________________________________, chased down the gazelle. 3. I cannot attend that study session _______________________________. 4. We cant believe ____________________________________.

Identify the Fragments and Sentences (Independent Clauses):

(1)Amy was excited. (2) As a reporter for her


middle school newspaper, The Blaze, she had been asked to interview someone and write an article about

that person. (3) Once a month, with an interesting adult


from the community, The Blaze publishes an interview about a person. (5) That has a positive impact on the community. (5) Last month a student interviewed a local figure skater. (6) Who had just made the United States Olympic Team. (7) Amy had no idea whom to interview.

Dependent Clause: Adverb


Describes a VERB Tells HOW, when or why about the verb

Quadree cant dunk because he is short.


WHY cant Quadree dunk? because he is short

If you want to dunk a ball, you must jump high.


How can I dunk a ball? If I jump high. When a sentence begins with an adverbial clause, a COMMA is placed after the ENTIRE clause. ADVERB CLAUSES ARE NOT COMPLETE SENTENCES!

Identify the Adverbial Clause:


1. Because the Ravens lost the Superbowl, they

do not get rings. 2. The camera broke before the photographer finished the session. 3. Jashante and I cannot attend the field trip since we didnt bring our permission forms. 4. Once the Star Spangled Banner is over, the game will begin. 5. An athletic person, Quadree lifts weights every day even though his coach advises him not to do so.

Fill in the Adverbial Clause:


1. The State of the Union address aired _________ 2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

the regularly scheduled shows finished. __________ Angel made the winning shot, the team celebrated at Cicis Pizza Restaurant. The program will not survive if ________________________________________ ____. Our parents reprimanded us since ________________________________________ ____. ____________________________________ we visited the Science Museum of Virginia. Id like to try Kung Pao shrimp ________________________________________ _________.

Identify the Fragments and Sentences.


(1) Jefferson began clearing the land for the house
in 1768. (2) Although construction of the original design began the following year. (3)Jefferson first moved into the

partially completed house in 1770. (4) Because he did


not have much time to enjoy his new home, he had to focus on his political interests. (5)Due to Jeffersons involvement with the nations politics, progress on Monticello over the next several years was steady but

slow. (6)However, the house was essentially finished by


1784 (7) When Jefferson left for Paris to negotiate a

Read the passage. Identify the Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses. Label the types of Dependent Clauses.
(1) The Tuohys, who adopted Michael Oher, live just a short distance from Oher's old neighborhood, but it is a world away. (2) Because he was like other young black men who grew up poor in Memphis, Oher seemed destined for one of two possible outcomes. (3) He could have a life consumed by drugs and gangs, or he could have one of sports with a glimmer of hope. (4) For Oher, the journey to success began in a housing

project called Hurt Village, which is appropriately named. (5)


Hurt Village, which was poverty- stricken, could have claimed him, but the Tuohys opened their door to Oher that opened a

world of hope for him.