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SPSS

What is SPSS?

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences:
SPSS is a software package used for conducting
statistical analyses, manipulating data, and
generating tables and graphs that summarize data.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
Statistical analyses range from basic
descriptive statistics, such as averages
and frequencies, to advanced inferential
statistics, such as regression models,
analysis of variance, and factor
analysis.

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Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences
SPSS contains several tools for manipulating
data, including functions for recoding data and
computing new variables as well as merging
and aggregating datasets.
SPSS also has a number of ways to summarize
and display data in the form of tables and
graphs.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
SPSS is the statistical package
most widely used by
Researchers/ Scientists.
Reasons and background of
SPSS are:

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
An SPSS Program Has 4 Parts:
- Defining
- Selecting
- Statistical
- Saving

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Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences
SPSS for Windows consists of five
different windows, each of which is
associated with a particular SPSS file
type.
In analyzing data in SPSS, the Data Editor
and the Output Viewer are mainly used.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
The Data Editor is the window that
is open at start-up and is used to
enter and store data in a
spreadsheet format.

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Statistical Package for
the Social Sciences
The Output Viewer opens
automatically , when you execute
an analysis or create a graph using
a dialog box or command syntax to
execute a procedure.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
The Output Viewer contains the
results of all statistical analyses and
graphical displays of data. The
Syntax Editor is a text editor where
you compose SPSS commands and
submit them to the SPSS processor.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
The Data Editor
The Data Editor window displays the
contents of the working dataset. It is
arranged in a spreadsheet format that
contains variables in columns and cases
in rows.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
Datasets that are currently open are called
working datasets and all data manipulations,
statistical functions, and other SPSS procedures
operate on these datasets.
The Data Editor contains several menu items
that are useful for performing various operations
on your data. Here is the Data Editor, containing
the Employee data. sav dataset:

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Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences

Course Developed by K.K.Nigam


Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
Data can be directly entered in SPSS, or a file
containing data can be opened in the Data
Editor.
From the menu in the Data Editor window,
choose the following menu options (or type
Alt+F+O+A):
File
Open...

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
If the file you want to open is not an SPSS data
file, you can often use the Open menu item to
import that file directly into the Data Editor. If a
data file is not in a format that SPSS recognizes,
then try using the software package in which the
file was originally created to translate it into a
format that can be imported into SPSS.

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences
The following dialog box is used to generate descriptive
statistics. Here, only the Paste button in the dialog box is
relevant.

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Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences
The Output Viewer
All output from statistical analyses is printed to the Output
Viewer window as well as other useful information.
When you execute a command for a statistical analysis,
regardless of whether you used syntax or dialog boxes,
the output will be printed in the Output Viewer. Some
other output that you may want to have printed to the
Output Viewer are command syntax, titles, and error
messages.
The Output Viewer is shown below:

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Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences

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SPSS

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SPSS
This figure shows the Options
dialog box with the Draft Viewer tab
selected, to choose which options
you want to appear in the Output
Viewer. Most commands are
selected by default. Here, the

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SPSS
Importing Data From Excel Files
Data can be imported into SPSS from
Microsoft Excel and several other
applications with relative ease. Importing
an Excel spreadsheet into SPSS is easy.
If you are working with a spreadsheet in
another software package, you may want
to save your data as an Excel file, then
import it into SPSS.

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SPSS
If you have a spreadsheet that is arranged
in a database format (e.g., you have
several tables in your Workbook that are
related through identification fields), there
is another method for importing Excel file
that you might consider that will merge
tables within your database as part of the
import procedure.

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SPSS
First, select the desired location on disk
using the Look in option. Next, select
Excel from the Files of type drop-down
menu. The file you saved should now
appear in the main box in the Open File
dialog box. You can open it by double-
clicking on it. You will be presented with
one more dialog box:

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SPSS
When you start a session, you see the
Data Editor window.
There are few simple, basic steps to data
analysis.
Get your data into the Data Editor. Select a procedure
from the menus to:
- Create tables
- Calculate statistics, or
- Create charts.
Select the variables you want to use in the analysis.

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SPSS
For entering the data in the Data Editor
there are two ways:
1. Enter the data by opening the Data
Editor and Enter the data
2. Import the data from the existing data
file . It may be an Excel Worksheet or a
database like Access or an ASCII File
Let us see how this is done

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SPSS
Open the SPSS :
1. Go to File Menu
2. Select Database Capture
- Click on it , you will see three options
- New Query
- Edit Query
- Run Query
3. Select/Click on New Query

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SPSS
You will see the screen as shown below, select Excel file option:

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SPSS
Select the file/fields you want to capture, and the out come
will be as shown below

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SPSS
Calculate HRA as 40% of the Basic .
This can be done in the following way:
1. Select Transform option
2. Select Compute – Following will display:

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SPSS
Following will appear:

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SPSS
You can sort the data on any field . Let us try to sort on Grade:
1. Go to Grade column
2.Click on Data/Sort Cases
You will see the screen like this:

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SPSS
Select on Grade as shown below:

Ok , clicking on Ok, the table gets sorted on Grades.

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Now Report Preparation:
SPSS
1. Open the SPSS Project
2. Go to Analyze option
3. Select Reports
4. Select Case Summaries
5. Your screen look as shown
in the next screen

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SPSS
The screen will look like this after transferring all the fields to variables except
Group variables which is Grade:

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SPSS
On clocking on OK, the report will get generated as shown below:

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SPSS
Frequency Calculation may be done as shown below:
Click on Descriptive Statistics and then on Frequencies

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SPSS
Now Click ok and you will get the result as shown in the next
slide:

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SPSS
This is how you can have Grade wise Percent

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SPSS
Similarly you can calculate Descriptives

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SPSS
Let us try to understand what is Time
Series and how we can use it in SPSS :
Some Definitions ….
A set of ordered observations on a quantitative
characteristic of an individual or collective
phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually
the observations are successive and equally spaced in
time.

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Time Series
SPSS
The values of a variable generated successively in
time. A continuous barograph trace is an example of a
continuous time series, while a sequence of hourly
pressures is an example of a discrete time series.

In statistics, a time series is a sequence of data points,


measured typically at successive times, spaced apart at
uniform time intervals.

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SPSS
With following steps we can create a Time Series:

1. Click on Transform/ Create


Time Series
2. Then Click on ok
3. Report will be generated.

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SPSS
Frequency Distribution:
Some Definitions

A distribution of the count of cases corresponding


to the attributes of an observed variable.
FOR EXAMPLE, a frequency distribution of a
class of 45 students may indicate that 25 were
male and 20 were females.

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SPSS
Frequency Distribution:
A tabulation of scores from high to low, or low to high,
showing the number of individuals who obtain each
score or whose scores fall in each score interval.
Frequency distributions are used to determine tables
of percentile ranks.

A statistical concept, an arrangement of data to


show the number of times an event occurs in a
particular way.

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SPSS cumulative relative
class class absolute relative absolute cumulative
interval mark frequency frequency frequency frequency

0.00- 9.99 5 1 0.01 1 0.01

10.00-19.99 15 3 0.03 4 0.04

20.00-29.99 25 8 0.08 12 0.12

30.00-39.99 35 18 0.18 30 0.3

40.00-49.99 45 24 0.24 54 0.54

50.00-59.99 55 22 0.22 76 0.76

60.00-69.99 65 15 0.15 91 0.91

70.00-79.99 75 8 0.08 99 0.99

80.00-89.99 85 0 0 99 0.99

90.00-99.99 95 1 0.01 100 1

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SPSS
A frequency distribution is a tabular arrangement
of data whereby the data is grouped into different
intervals, and then the number of observations that
belong to each interval is determined. Data that is
presented in this manner are known as grouped
data.

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SPSS
For Descriptive Frequency – this type of out put can be
generated.

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SPSS
Similarly Explore can be created.

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SPSS
Reports for Cross tab will look this.

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SPSS
This is an example of General table

Similarly other tables like Multiple tables etc. can be generated.

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SPSS
You can t- test report like this;

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Univariate test
SPSS

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SPSS

Thank You

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