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Dynamics of Machinery II
ME 3015
B.Tech (First Year)
Second Semester
Daw Thida Oo
Lecturer
Mechanical Engineering Department
Yangon Technological University
Lectured by
2
CHAPTERS
Balancing
Forces
Cam Profile
[References:1.Dynamics of Machinery written by
U Kyaw Sein. 2.Theory of Machine (vol. 1)
written by N.C Pandya & C.S Shah. 3.Theory of
Machines and Mechanism written by Joseph
Edward Shigley & John Joseph Uicker, JR]

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BALANCING
The technique of correcting or eliminating
unwanted inertia forces and moments in
rotating or reciprocating masses.
The two equations to determine the
amount and location of the correction


F
CCW
M
Reference plane
F = 0 and M = 0
Upwards force is positive &
Counter clockwise couple is positive.
Assumptions
4
Resultant Effects of Engine
1. F = 0 & M = 0
Complete balanced
2. F = 0 & M 0
Unbalanced being due to a couple.





3. F 0 & M = 0
Unbalanced being due to a single resultant force in the
reference plane.





Ref; Plane
F
F
5
Continued
4. F 0 & M 0
Unbalanced being due to a single resultant force which
locates at a distance z from the reference plane and

F
Ref; Plane
F
Ref; Plane
z
F
M
z =
6
Balancing of Multi-cylinder In-line
Engines (Analytical Method)
7
Continued
In-line Engine Mechanism
1
n
2

n

F
1
F
2
F
3
x

x

Reference
Plane
8
Continued

=
=
=
n n
n
n
1
0 2 cos |
(
(

| u | u + | u | u e =

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
n n
1 n
n n
1 n
n n
1 n
n n
1 n
n n n n
2
2 sin 2 sin
l
r
2 cos 2 cos
l
r
sin sin cos cos r
g
W
F
The resultant inertia force,
(Primary Force)
(Secondary Force)
For Primary force Balance,

=
=
=
n n
n
n
1
0 cos|
0 sin
1
=

=
=
n
n n
n
|
and
0 2 sin
1
=

=
=
n
n n
n
|
For Secondary force Balance,
and
9
Continued
The resultant moment,
(

+ =

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n n
n
n n n n
x
l
r
x
l
r
x x r
g
W
M
1 1 1 1
2
2 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 cos sin sin cos cos | u | u | u | u e
(Primary Moment) (Secondary Moment)
For Primary Moment Balance,
For Secondary Moment Balance,

=
=
=
n n
n
n
x
1
0 sin|

=
=
=
n n
n
n
x
1
0 2 cos |

=
=
=
n n
n
n
x
1
0 2 sin |

=
=
=
n n
n
n
x
1
0 cos|
and
and
10
Example (1)
2 stroke, 2 cylinder, In-line Engine

Firing interval =

180
2
360
=

2
1
2 x
rad/s
11
Continued
cos sin 2 cos2 sin2 x xcos xsin xcos2 xsin2

1
=
0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

2
=
180
-1 0 360 1 0 x -x 0 x 0
0 0
Primary
Forces
Balanced
2 0
Secondary
Forces
Unbalanced
-x 0
Primary
Moments
Unbalanced
x 0
Secondary
Moments
Unbalanced
12
Continued
Secondary Unbalanced Force,
u e 2 cos 2
2
2
l
r
g
W
=
(Upwards)
Primary Unbalanced Moment,
u e cos
2
rx
g
W
=
(CW)
Secondary Unbalanced Moment,
u e 2 cos
2
2
x
l
r
g
W
=
(CCW)
13
Arrangement to balance the
secondary force (Upwards)
u e u e 2 cos 2 2 cos ) 2 ( 2
2
2 2
l
r
g
W
r
g
W
b
b
=
For balance,
2

2
2
2
u e 2 cos ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 sin ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 cos ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 sin ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
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Arrangement to balance the
primary moment (C.W)
u e u e cos cos
2 2
rx
g
W
x r
g
W
b b
b
=
For balance,
u e cos
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e sin
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e cos
2
b
b
r
g
W
x
b





15
Arrangement to balance the
secondary moment (C.C.W)
u e u e 2 cos 2 cos ) 2 (
2
2 2
x
l
r
g
W
x r
g
W
b b
b
=
For balance,
u e 2 cos ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 sin ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 sin ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
u e 2 cos ) 2 (
2
b
b
r
g
W
2
2
2
2
2
2

x
b
16
Balancing of multi-cylinder V-
Engine
17
Continued
V-Engine Mechanism

Odd no cylinders (1,3,5,..)

u

|
2
|
3
I

II

III

2

F
A
F
B
Even no cylinders
(2,4,6,..)

e

18
Continued
The resultant vertical inertia force,

| u | u e = sin cos sin cos cos [cos r
g
W
2 F
2 2 2 V
] 2 sin 2 cos cos 2 sin
l
r
2 cos 2 cos cos 2 cos
l
r

| u | u +
The resultant horizontal inertia force,

| u + | u e = sin sin cos cos sin [sin r
g
W
2 F
2 2 2 H
] 2 sin 2 sin sin 2 cos
l
r
2 cos 2 sin sin 2 sin
l
r

| u + | u +
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Assumptions

+F
V
+F
H
+M
H
C.W
+M
V
C.C.W
Reference Plane

x

y

z

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Example-4
8-cylinder, 4-stroke,V-engine
Firing Order 1-5-4-2-6-8-7-3
Firing Interval = 90
V angle = 90
I(1,2)

III(5,6)

IV(7,8)

II(3,4)

|
II
|
IV
|
III
90

=
8
720
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Continued
cos sin 2 cos2 sin2 x xcos xsin xcos2 xsin2

I
=
0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

II
=
90
0 1 180 -1 0 x 0 X -x 0

III
=
270
0 -1 540 -1 0 2x 0 -2x -2x 0

IV
=
180
-1 0 360 1 0 3x -3x 0 3x 0
0 0
Primary
Forces
Balanced
0 0
Secondary
Forces
Balanced
-3x -x
Primary
Moments
Unbalanced
0 0
Secondary
Moments
Balanced
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Continued
) 57 . 71 sin( rx
g
W
10
2
u e
Primary Unbalanced Horizontal Moment =
Primary Unbalanced Vertical Moment =
(CW)
) 43 . 18 sin( 10
2
+ u e rx
g
W
) 57 . 71 cos( 10
2
= u e rx
g
W
(CCW)
Note- sin=cos( - 90)
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Continued
Arrangement for
Balancing
57 . 71 sin
2
b
b
r
g
W
e
= e
b b
2 b
x r
g
W

57 . 71 cos
2
b
b
r
g
W
e

For Balance,
71.57

71.57

I(1,2)

II(3,4)

III(5,6)

IV(7,8)

e

x
b
rx
g
W
2
10 e
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FORCES
To study forces acting on machine members
Statically and Dynamically.
To determine the magnitudes, directions and
locations of forces.
Assumptions.
A member of a machine composed of all external
forces and inertia forces is equilibrium.
The forces acting on machines having plane motion
are for the most part situated in parallel plane.
The friction is disregarded.
The system will be applied Newtons Law.

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Static Force Analysis
Static forces exits if the system is in
equilibrium among them, when not
running.
For equilibrium, F = 0 and M = 0.
Two forces in equilibrium, (Two force
member)

F
1
F
2
F
1
= - F
2
F = 0
Shared same line of action M = 0
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Continued
Three forces in equilibrium
F
2
F
1
F
3
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
1
+ F
2
+ F
3
= 0, F = 0
Have a common point of application, M = 0
27
Continued
To find a line of action of unknown force in
three force member having a known force,
known line of action of another force but
not magnitude and known point acting the
last force.
F
2
F
1
F
3
Line of action of F
3
O
F
F
3
F
2
F
1
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Dynamics Force Analysis
m = total mass of body concentrated at the
centroid, C.G, of body.
A
G
= absolute acceleration of the centre
of mass of the body.
I
G
= mass moment of inertia.
= angular acceleration of the body.
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Inertia Forces and DAlemberts
Principle
F = F
1
+F
2
+F
3
, the resultant force will not be
through the mass centre, and results the
unbalanced force system.
The effect of this unbalanced system is to
produce an acceleration, A
G
, of the centre of
mass of the body. F = mA
G
(1)
Taking moment about centre of mass of the
body results the unbalanced moment system. It
causes angular acceleration, , of the body.
M = I
G
(2)


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Continued
(a) An unbalanced set of forces on a rigid
body.
(b) The acceleration which result from the
unbalanced forces.
O

y

x

G

M
G
=I

F=mA
G
(b)

F
2
F

O

F
3
F
1
y

x

h

G

m

(a)

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Conitued
From (1) and (2),
F +(- mA
G
) = 0 and M +(- I
G
) = 0
(- mA
G
) is called inertia force which has the same
line of action as the absolute acceleration A
G
but is
opposite in sense.
(- I
G
) is called inertia torque which is opposite in
sense to the angular acceleration .
The equations above are known as
DAlemberts principle.
32
Continued
To describe graphically,

G
G
A m
I
h
3
3
o
= The distance between the forces and couple,
A
G
F
23
F
43
+F
23


3

G

F
43
(a)

G

3

h

-mA
G
-mA
G
-I
3
+mA
G
(b)

3

G

F
23
-mA
G
h

F
43
(c)

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Example - 1
CW s rad
AB
A BA
t
, / 856
2
3
= = o
B
A
G
F
A
2
3
4
O
x
y
A
B
=888ft/s
2
A
G
=444ft/s
2
O
a
b
G
in
A m
I
h
G
G
35 . 1
3
3
= =
o
-m
3
A
G
=30.33lb
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Continued
A
F
A
F
12
F
32
F
23
F
14
-m
3
A
G
Free body diagrams
h
-mA
G
F
14
F
23
O
Force polygon of 3 & 4
F
12
F
32
F
A
Force polygon of 2

Ans, F
A
=27 lb
Line of action of F
23
-m
3
A
G
F
14
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