You are on page 1of 34

Theories of Ethics and Social Responsibility: Asian and Western Perspectives

Chan, Gary and George TL Shenoy (2009). Ethics and social responsibility: asian and western perspectives. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 1

http://www83.homepage.villanova.edu/richard.jacobs/MPA%208300/theories/calvin_ethics.jpg

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

http://www.thinkingshop.com/AIP/ethics/images/lectures/Mill_utilitarian%20intro_1.jpeg

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill


based on consequences and outcomes General Principle: an action is right and ought to be performed insofar as it leads to overall happiness or benefits, as opposed to pain or costs.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill


If I do this, what will be the impact on myself/others/society? A moral actor makes a decision to act or desist from acting based on what he perceives or predicts to be the consequences which will ensue from the act or omission.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill


Based on the actual consequences flowing from an action, it is in practice largely dependent on the moral actors prediction of the likely consequences.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. http://www.thinkin-lincoln.com/istrip_files/strips/20060515.gif

John Stuart Mill (1806-73)


Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of hapiness. Hapiness pleasure, absence of pain, unhapiness pain and privation of pleasure

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

John Stuart Mill (1806-73)


Good is equated with happiness People desire happiness/good as an end in itself Pleasure: virtues, health, music means to happiness, it is possible for them also to be part of the end (e.g. for those who love and desire virtue)

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

10

John Stuart Mill (1806-73)


Lying:

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

11

John Stuart Mill (1806-73)


Lying (cheating): weakens the trustworthiness of human assertions and inhibits the the development of civilisation. Generally, it is wrong except in specific circumstances (such as withholding facts to save an individual from grievous harm).

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

12

Jeremy Bentham
Right action is based on the happiness and value of the particular action Pleasure is an intrinsic good in itself hedonism

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

13

http://izquotes.com/quotes-pictures/quote-it-is-the-greatest-good-to-the-greatestnumber-of-people-which-is-the-measure-of-right-and-wrong-jeremy-bentham-15901.jpg
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 14

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant)


Ethics does not rest on the actual consequences arising from the intended action or the summation of pleasure and pain based on empiricism, senses and inclinations

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

15

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): deontological (moral duties)


PURE REASON reason a priori not empirical or sensory Good Will the end in itself Each person possesses autonomy and freedom to act A rational person possesses understanding and seeks to exercise his will based on reason, free from impulse, inclinations and senses
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 16

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): deontological (moral duties)


one must act from moral duty instead of acting based on his inclinations or interests Acting from a moral duty vs acting in conformity with a moral duty The shopkeeper

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

17

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): deontological (moral duties)


The shopkeeper does not overcharge an inexperienced customer but instead fixes a general price for every customer. Although the shopkeeper acts in conformity with duty (i.e. in accordance with the principle of honesty), Kant suggests that if the shopkeeper is motivated by personal advantages or self-interest, then he is not acting from duty. Thus, the action would be unethical from the Kantian perspective.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

18

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): 2 Categorical Imperatives


Principle of Universality Act only according to the maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. Principle of Humanity Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that another, always as an end and never as a means only.

Act in a way that is consistent with what you would want as a universal law, and at the same time, treat people as ends, and a means only.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

19

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): 2 Categorical Imperatives


The Principle of Universality essentially reminds us that there should not be double standards in the determination of ethical conduct. That is, the ethical maxim which one adopts for himself should similarly be applied to others.
Act in a way that is consistent with what you would want as a universal law, and at the same time, treat people as ends, and a means only.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

20

The principle of universality


A Chinese employer hires new staff. He desires to hire only employees who belong to his ethnic group, notwithstanding the companys location in a multiethnic community and the eligible candidates from various ethnic groups. Favouritism vs meritocracy

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

21

Kantian Ethics (Immanuel Kant): 2 Categorical Imperatives


The Principle of Humanity based on human dignity. Humans as rational beings are persons who exist as ends in themselves. This is contrasted with physical objects such as tools which are used merely as a means to achieve certain ends or purpose.
Act in a way that is consistent with what you would want as a universal law, and at the same time, treat people as ends, and a means only.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

22

The principle of humanity


Downsizing: How does one reconcile the decision to make an employee redundant with the Principle of Humanity? Is it possible to argue that the provision of a sufficiently long period of notice and a reasonable severance package demonstrate respect for the employee?
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 23

http://www.rsrevision.com/images/chwarlarge.jpg
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 24

http://cecilialcoelho.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/ethics-cartoon11.jpg

1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 25

Kantian Ethics
Lying (cheating): is wrong without admitting any exceptions at all

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

26

http://pegasus.cc.ucf.edu/~stanlick/kantandmill.gif

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

27

QUESTION
1. Recall Mills position on lying. What is the difference between the Millian and Kantian approaches? Provide a very specific scenario that happens in workplaces. 2. Is Kants universal law based on ethnic discrimination self-defeating or contrary to reason? Why so?

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

28

THEORIES OF JUTICE

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

29

Three theories of justice


The Aristotelean conception of justice John Rawls justice as fairness Robert Nozick and the entitlement theory

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

30

Three theories of justice


The Aristotelean conception of justice John Rawls justice as fairness

Robert Nozick and the entitlement theory


http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Msy1BFoV7jI/ULygLaFusAI/AAAAAAAAAVI/fBQ1NrZcS4o/s1600/ME_329_SocialContract.png

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

31

Aristotelean conception of justice


Just means lawful and fair Jusice is complete virtue and that which leads to someone elses good, not merely oneself.

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

32

Aristotelean conception of justice


Three forms of justice 1. Distributive justice the benefits and advantages accruing to one person as compared to another within the society. justice is regarded as a means and is based on the proportional ratios of values. This involves distribution of goods in accordance with the right proportions.
1/14/2014 Bonifacio G. Train, Jr. 33

Aristotelean conception of justice


1. Distributive justice e.g. assume

1/14/2014

Bonifacio G. Train, Jr.

34