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Nature of Science Why Study Human Behavior

3. Development of Scientific Study of Human Behavior

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Development of Behavioral Science


Research in the Behavioral Science

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Perspective in Behavioral Science

NATURE OF SCIENCE
way. Science is popularly defined as an accumulation of systematic knowledge based on facts. A fact is regarded as an empirically verifiable observation. Theory refers either to the relationships between facts or to the ordering of terms in some meaningful

THEORY IS A TOOL OF SCIENCE IN THREE WAYS:

1) it offers conceptual scheme by which the relevant phenomena are systematized, classified and interrelated, and summarizes facts into (a) empirical geralization and (b) systems of gaps in our knowledge. On the other hand, facts are also productive of theory in three ways: 1.) Facts help initiate theories; 2.) They lead to the reformation of existing theory; 3.) They change the forms and orientation of theory and they clarify and redefine theory.

WHY THE STUDY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

Management is constantly trying to understand and influence the mental process of others and the only access we have on the mental process of others is through a study of their behaviour.

People are continually adjusting to and the depending on other people. Many people failed to adjust to the work environment because they do not know the nature of work and the climate they are getting into.

Leadership in business is becoming more demanding and the person without a college degree maybe handicapped in his efforts to rise to higher position of responsibility.

Finally, knowledge of principles of human behaviour will help one acquire understanding, skills and desires which will prepare him to work with others with increasing cooperation, understanding and effectiveness.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR


The scientific study of human behaviour was only a 19th century development until the later part of the 19th century; philosophy (which was base on speculations and logic) was the only approach to the study of human behaviour.
Psychophysics was a science that studied the functional relations of dependency between mind and body but which actually determine the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they produce.

Prof. Wilhem Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Titchener and Cattell from America, in turn, brought the new physiological doctrine and methods to the United States where Psychology became fairly established by the end of the19th century. (Ruch 1963)

UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR


The majority of theories and models of human behaviour fall into one of the two basic categories: The internal perspective considers the factor inside the person to understand behavior. People who subscribe to this view understand human behavior. This view is psychodynamically oriented. The external perspective focuses on factors outside the person to understand behavior. External events, consequences of behavior, environmental forces to which a person is subject, are emphasized by this external perspective.

the 1950s when the Fords Foundation coined it to the describe its program Individual Behavior and Human Relation.

DEVELOPMENT OF The term behavioural science came into use only in BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE

To qualify as a behavioural science, a field of study must satisfy to basic criteria; First, it must have human behavior as its subject matter; second, it must study the human behavior in the scientific manner. The second criterion must be very clearly understood because the study of the human behavior is by no means the exclusive monopoly of the behavioural sciences. Other field of study are also concerned with the analysis and understanding of human behavior.

SOME BASIC DEFINITION


The two words from which the term behavioural science is derived are behavior and science. Science may be define from two view points. The static view defines science as a body of knowledge. It emphasis is on the product of science activity rather than on the activity itself. The dynamic view, however, defines science as an activity as such, it is more concerned with what scientist do.

In general, human behavior may be define as many activity of an individual or group, whether such activity can be observe by another person or detected by scientific instrument thus, it includes not only mans directly observable behavior but also the less directly observable feelings, thought, motives, attitude, values etc. that influence such behavior. A stimulus situation refers to a factor, condition, situati0on or a combination of a factor (whether internal or external) which provide the occasion for the response. The study of organizational behavior is primarily concerned with the psychosocial, interpersonal and behavioural dynamics in an organization.

RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR SCIENCE


The immense success of science it traces to the way it seeks, finds and test knowledge. The true scientific investigator never jumps at conclusion, never takes anything for granted, never considers his judgements better than his information, and never substitute opinion or long established beliefs for facts.

BASIC STEPS IN RESEARCH


Statement of the Problem

Research begins with defining and searching the problem, expressing it in explicit and concrete term. This will also include the limitation of the scope of the problem and formulation of a hypothesis. Hypothesis is important since it serve as a guide to collection, organization and interpretation of data. Where exact observation is impossible, a tentative explanation adapted temporarily as a working hypotheses, has open prove of great service.

The Research Design This generally involves the following steps: 1) determining the type of data needed; whether primarily or secondary. 2) Identifying the source of data. 3) Selecting the methods generally used in the study of human behavior are: analitycal or documentary experimental survey and case. 4) Choosing the subject or formulating the sampling plan.

Obtaining Information and Gathering The Data Data may be obtained through four methods:

1. Direct Observation - this involves making direct critical and systematic observation of actual behavior pattern in a given situation. A researcher can make direct observation of behavior as a participant or nonparticipant observer. As a participant he becomes a part of the event he is observing or the community he is studying.

2. Verbal Reports - this are use to measure covert behavior such as attitudes, feelings, opinions and beliefs. This maybe in the form of oral interviews or written questionnaires. 3. Tests and Inventories - psychology sometimes use standardized batteries of psychological test or inventories to evaluate some problems in hiring training and promoting of personnel. the forms that ask the subject fairly direct questions abpout himself are usually termed inventories.

4. Secondary Data or Library Materials - the investigator makes use of written records such as data provided by the Bureau of Census and Statistics, Life Insurance Records, School Records, Court Proceedings, Published Materials such as diaries, autobiographies, biographies and other publications such as magazines periodicals and newspapers period.

Processing the Data This will involve data or classifying data into meaningful categories which may be done quantitatively or qualitatively some of the steps involve are processing, editing, classifying, coding and tabulating. Coding is a technical process by which raw data are transformed into symbolic or numbers that may be tabulated. Tabulation is a systematic method of counting similar replies asnd adding them in an accurate and orderly manner. Analysis and Interpretation There are two basic methods of analyzing data; the statistical and the inferential. The former includes the use of statistical formula or quantitative procedure to establish some significance among different variables. Correlation determines what is average or typical and finds out the extent of diverse behavior and others. Inferential Analysis is the process of determining the meaning of evidence by reflective thinking. It is in this method where one uses logical syllogism or inferences based on data obtained.

Writing the Final Report

A written research report generally includes the following: 1. Statement of the problem 2. The research design 3. Analysis and interpretation of findings 4. Summary conclusions and recommendations

PERSPECTIVE IN BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE


The vast business and industrial challenges brought about by the revelation in human behavior have broadened the spectrum of human observation. An integrated field of investigation into the insites, feelings and reactions of workers and employees has enabled behavioural scientist to discover the meaningful reasons or causes of mans actions.

Behavioral Science in Management


Management has spent millions of pesos to find new perspectives to change conventional thinking and practices in dealing with human behavior. The rate of technological changes, the growing complexity of modern businesses, the increase of scientific researches have affected the basic a character of human organization. The need of our modern business requires that they examine present organizational theory and practice. The behavioural sciences have found influences that cause certain behavior in the organization.

Behavioral Science in Marketing


Business depends much on advertising to effectively help the salesman convince the customer to buy a product. Advertising first informs the customers about the quality of a product before the salesman sees his customer. Salesmanship has much to do with influencing or motivating human behavior. In the near future behavioural science will become more evident in marketing courses.

Behavioral Science in Economics


People of the modern world live in a money-making society. The habit of descring wealth in terms of the money value of a persons possession is common. Economics and the behavioural science are closely allied because the money value depends on the motives of man. Economists would like to have better information on the cultural and social determinants of the demand for consumers good, of occupational choice and of the level of savings. There exist social influences on individual economic behavior.

Behavioral Science in Accounting


The increasing interest in the behavioural science is centered not only on the areas of management, marketing and economics but also on the broader field of accounting. The growth of interest in the behavioural sciences may be seen in behavioural researches in managerial accounting.

Behavioral researches in management accounting can be divided into three broad categories: 1. Attempts to specify a model for all or part of the sub- system. 2. Investifgation on the behavioural dimensions of the management control process. 3. Studies from the behavioural point of view of the effect of a firms characteristics on the form and function of the management information system.

Areas of research to which the accounting profession could direct its attention include; 1. Research on the changes going on in society and changes in group and individual values. 2. Research on the ways and means of doing business and how this changes affect organizational structure within the business. 3. Research on communication networks.

4. Research on means of increasing efficiency in transmitting information - particularly in the area of redundancy and semantics.

An article entitled: Behavioral Science Content of the Accounting Curriculum, has shown several behavioural science areas which are relevant to accounting education. Such areas are the problem of communication by way of transmitting information in various areas of business, budgeting and employee behavior, a behavioural study of tax allocation, behavioural study of supervisors and their relation to budget-induced pressure and many others.

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CRISTINA SOBRENILLA JONNABILLE GIRAY JULIUS JAY EDILLOR