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Patrick D.

Flores

Patrick Flores
Art history professor at

UP Diliman Writes numerous articles and criticisms about Philippine art

Philippine Cinema and Society excerpts


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History, Industry and Audience


Cinematic encounter Beginnings and Transformations
First films were shown in Escolta, Manila, after Rizals execution. 2. Antonio Ramos, a Filipino businessman, introduced Lumieres cinematograph (where sine evolved from). Short films were shown. Note: Short films are rarely mentioned in Philippine cinema history; Philippine cinema is equal to mainstream cinema, works to a disadvantage.

Philippine Cinema and Society excerpts


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History, Industry and Audience


Cinema as Colonial Technology
Ethnographic films about the Philippines were made (this includes processions, even construction of the Manila Hotel) Three important aspects of filmmaking were conceptualized: censorship, imposition of government taxes, and international distribution.

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Cinema as Hollywood Industry


Watching movies became a way of life. Studios such as the Excelsior pictures, Sampaguita Pictures, and LVN Pictures came into being.

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Filipino film pioneers coming from the mestizo class, ventured into filmmaking Dalagang Bukid, the first Filipino film, was shown in 1919. Directed by Jose Nepomuceno, this film is a sarsuela starring Atang de la Rama. Early Philippine cinema stood at the crossroads of being for the elitists and the public.
The Japanese clamped down on movie production. Only Tia Juana, an LVN film, was released. Tatlong Maria, was funded by the Japanese. Censorship became a problem.

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Cinema as Nostalgia for Nation

Tatlong Maria

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After the war, came the First Golden Age of Philippine cinema. Maria Clara Awards (FAMAS Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences) started in 1950. Big three of Philippine cinema came into being: LVN (comedy-musical) of Narcisa de Leon; Sampaguita (melodramas) of Dr. Jose Perez; Premiere (action) of Adela Santiago.

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Cinema as Social Decadence and Dissent (1960s 1986)


Lost sight of the heritage of the past; exploited audiences fascination of Hollywood films

Famas Awards

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Marcos started experimental cinema. Kidlat Tahimik, Nick Deocampo, Lino Brocka, Mike Leon, and Ishmael Bernal built their names in the industry. Nora Aunor became famous; the themes of her films include both commercial and activist ideas. Almost pornographic films were free from censorship.

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Cinema after Marcos and Beyond Cory (1986 onwards)


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Philippine film aesthetics were ushered in. Rise of love teams and studios such as Regal and Viva Rise of trends such as action, melodrama, sex, comedy, etc.

Discourse: Genre and Narrative 1. Action aspiration of justice; staple scenario is vendetta 2. Drama rivalry, disloyalties; revelations of secrets, etc. 3. Comedy-Musical alls well that ends well; early comedies were characterized by slapstick, but contemporary comedies are different. 4. Horror/Fantasy characters are haunted by or saved from evil forces; plot includes pre-colonial myths and epics with Hollywood ghosts and superheroes. 5. Hybrid forms no pure genre

1. The Contemporary Scene a. Market What are the features of the Philippine domestic film market? - modes of dissemination have been considerably broadened; theater exhibition has declined significantly. Why? - Hollywood competition is stronger. Note: pito-pito movies films of poor quality; the whole film production was done in only one week; became popular during the 1990s

State intervention Movie Television Review and Classification Board Taxes from films Pr oblems of the industry Too many films with poor quality Hollywood ties are very tenacious and take root in formulas and competition. Film workers are not professionalized. Recruitment is heavy from television Entertainment media is corrupt. What should be done in order to remedy these situations?