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TOPIC : Timber

extraction, mining,

dams and their effects on forest and tribal

people

• Extraction of timber is a major intervention in forest stocks and inevitably causes disturbance to
• Extraction of timber is a major intervention in forest stocks and inevitably causes disturbance to

Extraction of timber is a major intervention in forest stocks and

inevitably causes disturbance to flora

and fauna.

Extraction often also involves the creation of forestry roads, which have a

fragmenting effect.

It is postulated that extraction of timber at any point of time depends on :

  • A. the stock.

  • B. the effort involved in extraction.

    • C. the biodiversity index.

  • D. the ecological characteristics of the forests.

EFFECTS OF TIMBER EXTRACTION ON FOREST AND TRIBAL PEOPLE

Poor logging results in a degraded forest.

Floods may be intensified by cutting of trees or upstream watersheds.

Loss of biodiversity.

New logging roads permit shifting cultivators to gain access to logged areas and fell the remaining trees.

It results in forest fragmentation which promotes loss of biodiversity because

some species of plants and animals

require large continuous areas of similar habitat to survive.

Climatic changes such as lower precipitation.

Exploitation of tribal people by the contractors.

Soil erosion specially on slopes occurs extensively.

Sedimentation of irrigation systems,

floods may be intensified by cutting of

trees on upstream.

Scientific research documenting the impact of timber extraction indicate

that it has resulted in fragmentation of

the remaining forest, as well as decrease in biodiversity

Loss of non-timber products and loss of long-term forest productivity on the

site affect the subsistence economy of

the forest dwellers.

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or

other geological materials from the

earth, from an ore body, vein or

(coal) seam. The term also includes

the removal of soil.

In terms of landscape permeability, alternative methods of extraction (e.g. cable logging, horse logging etc.) should

be given preference.

The use of horses, in particular, causes less damage to stands and regeneration

areas, and protects the forest floor as it

does not leave tracks or cause widespread compaction of soils or oil pollution etc.

Large scale deforestation has been reported in Mussorie and Dehradun valley due to indiscriminating mining of

various minerals over a length of about

40 Km.

Mining of magnesite and soap stones have destroyed 14 ha of forest in hill slopes of Khirakot , Kosi valley , Almora.

Mining of radioactive minerals in

Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are

posing similar threats of deforestation.

Mining and its associated activities require removal of vegetation along with

underlying soil mantle and overlying rock

masses , which results in Topography and

destruction of landscape in the area.

Mining from shallow deposits is done by surface mining while that from deep

deposits is done by sub-surface mining.

• Big dams have been in sharp focus of various environmental groups all over the world

Big dams have been in sharp focus of various environmental groups all over

the world which is mainly because of

several ecological problems including deforestation and socio-economic problems related to tribal or native people associated with them.

THE SILENT VALLEY

HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT

The Silent valley hydroelectric project was one of the first such projects situated in the tropical rain forest area of Western Ghats which

attracted much concern of the

people.

Big dams and rivers valley projects have multi-purpose

uses and Pandit Jawaharlal

Nehru used to refer to these

dams and valley projects as

“Temples of modern India”.

For building big dams, large scale devastation of forests takes place which breaks the natural ecological balance of

the region. Floods, droughts and land

slides become more prevalent in such

areas.

Forests are the repositories of invaluable gifts of nature in the form of biodiversity

and by destroying them (particularly, the

tropical rain forests) we are going to lose

these species even before knowing them.

THANK YOU

Submitted By:

Adarsh P. S. Btech 4 th Sem (VAST)

DEFINITIONS

Biodiversity- "Biodiversity describes the number and variety of all forms of

life - living organisms, the genetic

differences between them and the ecosystems in which they occur."

Biodiversity index -A diversity index is a quantitative measure that reflects how many different types (such as species) there

are in a dataset, and simultaneously takes

into account how evenly the basic entities (such as individuals) are distributed among

those types. The value of a diversity index

increases both when the number of types increases and when evenness increases. For

a given number of types, the value of a

diversity index is maximized when all types are equally abundant.