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WELCOME

ABSTRACT
The present work aims to evaluate the effect of GAS TUNGSTUN ARC WELDING process parameters on the quality of the weld bead. Process parameters : Wire Diameter, Welding Current, Wire Feed Speed, Ratio of wire feed rate to travel speed & Plate Thickness. The quality of the weld bead can be assessed by the bead characteristics such as Penetration, Reinforcement and Bead width. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of the WELDING process parameters using automatic GTAW machine and the results are tabulated and plotted. Also mathematical models are developed.

INTRODUCTON
The GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc welding) process is easily found in any industry whose products requires metal joining in a large scale. The quality of the welded material can be

evaluated by many characteristics, such as bead


geometric parameters (penetration, width and height) and deposition efficiency (ratio of weight of metal deposited to the weight of electrode consumed).

GTAW System setup

Advantage of the GTAW Process


Weld more kinds of metals and metal alloy.
Stainless steel, nickel alloys, titanium, aluminum, copper, brass

Also can weld dissimilar metals to each other.


Copper to brass Stainless steel to mild steel.

Other Advantages
Concentrated Arc
Pin point control of heat input to the work piece. Narrow heat affected zone This is where the base metal has undergone a change due to the superheating of the arc and fast cooling rate.

No Slag No Sparks, Spatter or Noise No Smoke or Fumes

GTAW Disadvantages
Low filler metal deposition rate. Arc Rays are brighter than normal welding. Need additional care to protect skin with proper clothes and welding lens.

STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS AND TAGUCHI METHOD

INTRODUCTION
Statistical designed experiments with 5 process

parameters (each at 3 levels) are conducted to study the effect of these parameters on bead geometry. It is found from the analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The phases in design of experiments

The planning phase The conducting phase The analysis phase

Importance of Taguchi Method


Taguchis approach complements these two important areas. 1. Clearly defines a set of general design for factorial experiments that cover many applications. 2. Devised a standard method for analysis of the results.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The aim of this project is to find the optimum welding process parameters like welding current, wire feed speed, welding speed, wire diameter and plate thickness in a GTA welding process.

Automatic GTAW Machine

Control Parameters & Its Levels


FACTOR LEVELS PARAMETERS Current (X1) Wire diameter (X2) Wire feed rate (X3) UNITS A mm mm/min mm NOTATION 1 I D WFR WFR/TS PT 140 1.2 1500 6 8 2 160 1.4 2000 8 12 3 180 1.6 2500 10 16

Ratio of wire feed rate to travel speed (X4)


Pipe thickness (X5)

Experiment al Number

Current (A)

Wire Diamet er (mm)

Wire Feed Rate (mm/min)

Ratio of wire feed rate to travel speed

Plate Thickne ss (mm)

E01 E02 E03 E04 E05 E06 E07 E08 E09 E10 E11 E12 E13 E14 E15 E16 E17 E18

1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 3 2 1

1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 1

1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2

Bead Geometry

To Calculate Bead parameters


Filler metal being deposited using GTAW machine and bead geometry was found by using microscopic examination.

1.Grinding & polishing 2.Etching- Reagent (Picric acid)


NEOPHOT 2 Microscope is used for Microscopic examination.

NEOPHOT 2 Microscope

Heat Input
J= Where J is heat input in kj/mm V is welding voltage in volts I is Welding current in amps GTS is Gun travel speed in mm/min is Arc Efficiency for GTAW (0.6)

Wire Deposition Efficiency %


=

Where V1 =

V2 =

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

S. D I GTS WFR PT Penetration Reinforcement Width Heat input (J) No. (mm) (Amp) (mm/min) (mm/min) (mm) (P) mm ( R ) mm (W) mm kJ/mm

Wire Wire Weld Bead deposition Deposition Volume Volume Efficiency (V1)mm3 (V2) mm3 % 5.25 7.45 4.83 3.22 3.78 10.45 6.34 7.22 3.28 7.13 6.34 8.28 4.12 9.24 3.04 5.98 3.02 9.6 27.78 28.13 28.57 28.57 28.89 30.67 39.13 38.78 37.50 27.78 28.13 27.93 25.81 37.50 39.22 40.00 34.48 39.62 0.84 0.50 0.36 0.58 0.41 0.96 1.08 0.65 0.46 0.36 0.84 0.50 0.41 0.96 0.58 0.65 0.46 1.08

1 2 3 4

1 1 1 2

1 2 3 1

1 2 3 1

1 2 3 2

1 2 3 2

0.78 0.97 0.87 0.92

1.84 1.89 1.94 2.02

0.75 0.91 1.96 0.82 1.31 2.25 1.76 1.91 1.18 0.75 0.91 0.98 0.76 2.41 2.18 1.78 1.14 2.1

1.95 2.26 4.95 1.96 3.21 5.14 2.75 3.12 2.1 1.95 2.28 2.58 2.34 4.05 2.98 2.53 1.65 2.93

5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12

2
2 3 3 3 1 1 1

2
3 1 2 3 1 2 3

2
3 2 3 1 3 2 1

3
1 1 2 3 3 2 1

3
1 3 1 2 2 3 1

1.06
0.98 1.19 1.25 1.42 0.75 1.03 0.58 1.73 1.09 0.81 0.94 1.34 1.22

2.30
2.42 2.54 2.65 3.00 1.80 2.23 1.50

13
14 15 16 17 18

2
2 2 3 3 3

1
2 3 1 2 3

2
3 1 3 2 1

3
1 2 2 3 1

1
2 3 3 1 2

3.42
2.34 1.88 2.85 2.03 2.60

Main Effects Plot for Means


Data Means
B A 1.8 1.6 1.4 C

Mean of Means

1.2 1.0 140 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 6 8 10 8 12 16 160 D 180 1.2 1.4 E 1.6 1000 2000 3000

effect of factor levels on depth of penetration in GTAW A3 B3 C3 D1 E3

Main Effects Plot for Means


Data Means
B A 3.6 3.2 2.8 C

Mean of Means

2.4 2.0 140 3.6 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.0 6 8 10 8 12 16 160 D 180 1.2 1.4 E 1.6 1000 2000 3000

effect of factor levels on reinforcement height in GTAW A2 B3 C3 D1 E3

Main Effects Plot for Means


Data Means
B A C

8 7 6

Mean of Means

5 4 140 8 7 6 5 4 6 8 10 8 12 16 160 D 180 1.2 1.4 E 1.6 1000 2000 3000

effect of factor levels on bead width in GTAW A1 B3 C3 D1 E2

Mathematical Models
The multiple regression analysis resulted the following equations Y = 10aX1bX2cX3dX4eX5f Penetration P= -- (5.1)

Reinforcement R =

-- (5.2)

Width

W=

-- (5.3)

2.60 2.40 2.20

predicted 'P' mm

2.00 1.80 1.60

1.40
1.20 1.00

0.80
0.60 0.40 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

experimental value 'P' mm Predicted value Vs Experimental value of penetration in GTAW

Predicted depth of penetration at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 8 mm thick plate)

Predicted depth of penetration at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 12 mm thick plate)

Predicted depth of penetration at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 16 mm thick plate)

4.5

predicted 'R' mm

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

experimental value 'R' mm Predicted value Vs Experimental value of reinforcement height in GTAW

Predicted reinforcement at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 8 mm thick plate)

Predicted reinforcement at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 12 mm thick plate)

Predicted reinforcement at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 16 mm thick plate)

12

10

predicted 'W' mm

0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

experimental value 'W' mm Predicted value Vs Experimental value of bead width in GTAW

Predicted width at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 8 mm thick plate)

Predicted width at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 12 mm thick plate)

Predicted width at different wire feed rates in GTAW (on 16 mm thick plate)

CONCLUSION
It is observed that penetration is increasing from 0.75mm to 2.25mm, when the wire feed rate is increased from 1000mm/min to 3000mm/min. It is also observed that penetration is decreasing with decrease in the ratio of wire feed rate to travel speed. Reinforcement and bead width are following almost the same trend. Increase in 2.12mm in the case of reinforcement was obtained by increasing wire freed rate from 1000mm/min to 3000mm/min. With increase in plate thickness penetration and bead width were found to be decreasing. That may be due to requirement of high heat input. The effect of wire diameter was found to be insignificant compare to other input parameters considered. At high values of heat input micro cracks and discontinues bead formation was also observed.

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