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CPE 232 Computer Organization Introduction

Dr. Gheith Abandah [Adapted from the slides of Professor Mary Irwin (www.cse.psu.edu/~mji) which in turn Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, 2005, UCB]

CPE232 Introduction

Grading Information

Grading

Midterm Exam Second Exam Home works and Quizzes Final Exam

30% 10% 10% 50%

Policies

Attendance is required All submitted work must be yours Cheating will not be tolerated This course requires significant effort

CPE232 Introduction

Course Content
Introduction MIPS Instruction Set

Computer Arithmetic CPU Performance

Midterm Exam
Datapath Design Control Design

Pipelining

Second Exam

Memory Hierarchy

Final Exam
CPE232 Introduction 3

Where is the Market?


Embedded Desktop Servers

1200
Millions of Computers

1122 892 862

1000 800 600 400 290 200 0 93 3 1998 114 3 1999 488

135 4 2000

129 4 2001

131 5 2002

CPE232 Introduction

By the architecture of a system, I mean the complete and detailed specification of the user interface. As Blaauw has said, Where architecture tells what happens, implementation tells how it is made to happen. The Mythical Man-Month, Brooks, pg 45

CPE232 Introduction

Instruction Set Architecture (ISA)

ISA: An abstract interface between the hardware and the lowest level software of a machine that encompasses all the information necessary to write a machine language program that will run correctly, including instructions, registers, memory access, I/O, and so on.
... the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls, the logic design, and the physical implementation. Amdahl, Blaauw, and Brooks, 1964 Enables implementations of varying cost and performance to run identical software

ABI (application binary interface): The user portion of the instruction set plus the operating system interfaces used by application programmers. Defines a standard for binary portability across computers.
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CPE232 Introduction

ISA Type Sales


Other SPARC Hitachi SH PowerPC Motorola 68K MIPS IA-32 ARM

1400 1200

Millions of Processor

1000 800 600 400 200 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

PowerPoint comic bar chart with approximate values (see text for correct values)
CPE232 Introduction 7

Moores Law

In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 24 months (i.e., grow exponentially with time).

Amazingly visionary million transistor/chip barrier was crossed in the 1980s.


2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) - 1971 16 Million transistors (Ultra Sparc III) 42 Million transistors, 2 GHz clock (Intel Xeon) 2001 55 Million transistors, 3 GHz, 130nm technology, 250mm2 die (Intel Pentium 4) - 2004 140 Million transistor (HP PA-8500)
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CPE232 Introduction

Processor Performance Increase


10000

Performance (SPEC Int)

1000

Intel Pentium 4/3000 DEC Alpha 21264A/667 DEC Alpha 21264/600 Intel Xeon/2000 DEC Alpha 5/500 DEC Alpha 5/300

DEC Alpha 4/266

100

DEC AXP/500

IBM POWER 100

HP 9000/750

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IBM RS6000 MIPS M2000 MIPS M/120


1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003

SUN-4/260

1
1987

Year

CPE232 Introduction

DRAM Capacity Growth


1000000 100000
64M 16M 512M 256M 128M

Kbit capacity

10000
1M

4M

1000 100
16K 64K

256K

10
1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002

Year of introduction

CPE232 Introduction

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Impacts of Advancing Technology

Processor

logic capacity: performance:

increases about 30% per year 2x every 1.5 years ClockCycle = 1/ClockRate

500 MHz ClockRate = 2 nsec ClockCycle 1 GHz ClockRate = 1 nsec ClockCycle 4 GHz ClockRate = 250 psec ClockCycle

Memory

DRAM capacity: 4x every 3 years, now 2x every 2 years memory speed: 1.5x every 10 years cost per bit: decreases about 25% per year

Disk

capacity:

increases about 60% per year


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CPE232 Introduction

Example Machine Organization

Workstation design target

25% of cost on processor 25% of cost on memory (minimum memory size) Rest on I/O devices, power supplies, box
Computer CPU Control Datapath Memory Devices Input

Output

CPE232 Introduction

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PC Motherboard Closeup

CPE232 Introduction

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Inside the Pentium 4 Processor Chip

CPE232 Introduction

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