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Hygiene

Edgel May C. Bayag, M.D.


Definition
• “Hygeia”
• Greek goddess
• Health, cleanliness and sanitation
• Hygienics
Definition
• Set of practices
• Preservation of health and healthy
living
• Medicine and Most aspects of living
(personal and professional care)
• Cleanliness and preventive measures

Hygiene Practices
• In medicine
– Aimed to reduce incidence of disease
– Spreading of disease
•  INFECTIOUS DISEASES
• Vary widely
– Acceptable in one culture
– Might not be acceptable in another
MEDICAL HYGIENE
• Administration of
medicine
• Medical care
• Prevents or
minimizes
disease
• Prevents spreading
of disease
MEDICAL HYGIENE PRACTICES
• Isolation or Quarantine
• Sterilization of instruments
• Protective clothing and barriers
• (masks, gowns, caps, eyewear,
gloves)
• Proper bandaging and dressing of
injuries
• Safe disposal of medical waste
• Disinfection of reusables
• (linen, pads, uniforms)

BODY HYGIENE
• Care for bodily
health and
well being
• Cleanliness

Motivations for Personal Hygiene Practices
• Reduction of illness
• Healing from illness
• Optimal health
• Sense of well being
• Social acceptance
• Prevention of spread of
illness to others

Personal Hygiene Practices
• Seeing a doctor
• Seeing a dentist
• Regular washing of the body
– bathing, showering
• Regular handwashing
• Brushing and flossing of teeth
• Basic manicure and pedicure
• Feminine hygiene
• Healthy eating


Personal Grooming
• Extends personal
hygiene
• Maintenance of good
personal and public
appearance
• Need not necessarily be
hygienic
Personal Body Hygiene Products
• Soap •Chapstick •Nail files
• Hair shampoo •Cream •Skin cleansers
• Hair conditioner •Lotion •Razors
• Toothbrushes •Facial Tissue •Shaving Cream
• Toothpaste •Hair clippers •Skin cream
• Cotton swabs •Nail clippers •Toilet Paper
• Deodorant •Mouthwash

Diseases Preventable by
Hygiene & Cleanliness
Edgel May C. Bayag, M.D.
Amebiasis
Parasitism & Diarrhea
Hepatitis A
Typhoid Fever
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
Influenza
Urinary Tract Infections(UTI)
Sore Throat
Common Diseases
Preventable by Hygiene
• Infectious Diarrhea
– Amebiasis, Acute Gastroenteritis
• Parasitism
• Hepatitis A
• Typhoid Fever
• Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
• Influenza
• Urinary Tract Infections
• Sore Throat

Excessive Body Hygiene
Edgel May C. Bayag, M.D.
Excessive Body Hygiene
• Benefits of body hygiene offset by the
risks of excessive body hygiene
•  cause allergic disease and bodily
irritation
– Allergies
– External ear canals
– Skin
EXCESSIVE BODY HYGIENE
AND ALLERGIES
• Hygiene hypothesis
– “Marked lack of early childhood
exposure to infectious
agents, and later a lack of
exposure to helminths as
adults, increases susceptibility
to allergic diseases”
• Lack of exposure to these agents
• Prevents body from developing
appropriate allergens and auto-
immune responses
EXCESSIVE BODY HYGIENE OF
EXTERNAL EAR CANALS
• Infection or Irritation
• Less body hygiene
care than other
parts of the body
• Sensitive
• Body system
adequately cares
for these parts
EXCESSIVE BODY HYGIENE OF
EXTERNAL EAR CANALS

• Removal of earwax
– Reduce ear canal
cleanliness
– Push debris& foreign
material into the
ear
• Removed by
natural
movement of
ear wax

EXCESSIVE BODY HYGIENE OF SKIN

• Skin irritation
• Skin has natural layer of oil
– Protects from drought
• When washing, unless using
aqueous creams
– Layer is removed, leaving
the skin unprotected
• Excessive washing
•  trigger eczema
EXCESSIVE BODY HYGIENE OF SKIN

• Excessive application of soaps, creams,


and ointments
– Adversely affect body’s natural
processes
• Soaps and ointments
– Deplete natural protective oils
– Absorb substances
– Disturb natural hormone balances
CULINARY HYGIENE

• Food management and cooking


• Prevent food contamination
• Prevent food poisoning
• Minimize transmission of disease to
other foods, humans or animals
• Safety ways
– handle, store, prepare, serve
Culinary Practices

• Cleaning and sterilization of


food-preparation areas and
equipment (chlorine bleach,
ethanol, UV light)
• Avoidance of meats
contaminated by trichinella
worms, salmonella, etc
• Cooking of questionable meats
Culinary Practices

• Extreme care in preparing


• raw foods
– sushi and sashimi
• Institutional dish sanitizing
– washing with soap and clean
water
• Washing of hands thoroughly
– before touching any food
Culinary Practices
• Washing of hands
– after touching uncooked
food when preparing
meals
• Not using the same utensils
to prepare different foods
• Not sharing cutlery when
eating
• Not licking fingers or hands
while or after eating
Culinary Practices

• Not reusing serving utensils that have


been licked
• Proper storage of food so as to prevent
contamination by vermin
• Refrigeration of foods
– Avoidance of specific foods where
refrigeration is not feasible
Culinary Practices
• Labeling food
– when it was produced
– “best before” date
• Proper disposal of
uneaten food
• Proper packaging
PERSONAL SERVICE HYGIENE

• Care and use of


instruments
used
• Administration of
personal care
services
Personal Service Practices

• Sterilization of instruments
– hairdressers,
aestheticians, and
other service
providers
• Sterilization by autoclave
of instruments
– body piercing and tattoo
marking
• Cleaning hands
History of Hygienic
Practices
Edgel May C. Bayag, M.D.
Hindu texts
• Manusmriti
• Vishnu Purana
• Bathing: Nitya karmas (daily duties) in
Sikhism
• Ritual Purity and were not informed by an
understanding of the causes of diseases
and their means of transmission
Roman Civilization
• Baths
• Aqueduct-fed flow
• Sewers
• Toilets
19th C, West
• Cesspools 
• Cholera (Dr. John Snow)
– Fecal contamination of water
• Sewers
• Flush Toilet
• Indoor and Private Bathrooms
Islamic World
• Ritually clean in time for daily prayer
• Islamic Dietary Laws
• Qur’an
– Uphold High Standards of Physical
Hygiene
– Ritually Clean

Ancient Europe
• Soapmaking in Dark Ages
• Scented Oils (Egypt)
• Sweat-Bathing and Perfume
• Public Bathing
– Environment of Immorality & Disease
– Syphilis Epidemics
Thank You