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Part 4

 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Types of Tissues
Tissue is a collection of comparable cells that carry out common
duties.
There are Four Types of Tissue

1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
2. MUSCULAR TISSUE
3. NERVOUS TISSUE
4. EPITHELIAL TISSUE
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Connective Tissue
Connective tissue helps attach materials together through fibrous, supportive, bone
and fluid connective tissues. All connective tissues have three common properties:
specialized cells, ground substance, and protein fibers. The GROUND SUBSTANCE is
chemical substances that saturates space in between cells and fibers. There are
three different types of fibers: COLLAGEN FIBERS are constructed of a protein
(collagen) which aids in flexibility and durability. Similar to collagen fibers, the
RETICULAR FIBERS branch outward to form thin support systems. Lastly, a protein
known as elastin makes up ELASTIC FIBERS which offer flexibility.
FIBROUS CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
• Loose fibrous – Fibroblast cells;
forms protective layer over
organs and aids epithelium.
• Dense fibrous – Fibroblast Loose Fibrous Adipose Dense
cells; created from closely Fibrous
bundled collagen fibers. Often
found in tendons/ligaments
connections to bones/joints.
•Adipose tissue – Loose
connective tissue where cells
swell to store fat. Tissue protects
Picture from
Connective Tissue Continued
Supportive Connective Tissue

SUPPORTIVE TISSUE aids in the formation of bone and cartilage. Due to its
solid matrix, this tissues cells usually occupy small cavities known as
LACUNAE. There are three different types of cartilage: HYALINE CARTILAGE is
constructed of a whitish matrix with thin collagen fibers. This type of
cartilage is found at the end of bones, in the trachea, and in the nose. Similar
to Hyaline, ELASTIC CARTILAGE contains more elastic fibers which yields
more flexibility. Elastic cartilage is found in the outer ear area, the voice box
(larynx), and the epiglottis. Lastly, the FIBROCARTILAGE consists of very
durable collagen fibers which can endure pressure/weight and absorb shock.
Fibrocartilage is found in the joint of the pubic bones, spinal disks, and in
Hyaline
knee cartilage.
Cartilag
e

Fibrocartilag
e
Picture from
Picture from http://en.wik
http://www.victoriacollege.edu/dept/bio/Belltutorials/Histology%20Tutorial/ ipedia.org/w
Basic%20Tissues/Connective%20Tissue.html#Elastic%20CT iki/Fibrocarti
Connective Tissue Continued
Bone
BONES are the firmest connective tissue which is constructed of a
hard matrix and collagen fibers. Bones get some of their structure
from OSSEOUS TISSUE, which lends to the cylindrical shape of them
(OSTEONS). Long and dense COMPACT BONES have rings of hard
matrix in the osteons. At the ends of long bones is a lighter structure
known as SPONGY BONE. This material has a separated formation
permitting space for marrow and blood vessels.

Spongy Bone

Osteon Compact Bone

Pictures from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone#Compact_bone and Human


Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 63
Connective Tissue Continued
Fluid
BLOOD: Plasma liquid with formed elements (red and white blood cells, and
platelets). Bloods duties include carrying oxygen and nutrients throughout
the body to other tissues fluid and circulates heat. RED BLOOD CELLS
transport oxygen throughout the body by loosely binding the oxygen with the
cells HEMOGLOBIN, an iron containing structure. Red blood cells do not
contain a nucleus. On the other hand, WHITE BLOOD CELLS contain a nucleus
and are larger in size. Also, they have a more translucent appearance. White
blood cells help to fight infections by either consuming the pathogens
through phagocytosis or creating antibodies to fight infections. PLATELETS

page 64
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader
are present in bone marrow where they aid in the reconstruction of broken
blood vessels. Platelets are pieces of cells.

Picture of
elements found in
blood

LYMPH: Yellowish fluid containing white blood cells. Lymph originates from
tissue fluid and is cleansed in the LYMPH NODES which is lymphatic tissue on
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Muscular Tissue
Pictures from Human
Biology by Sylvia S.
Mader page 65

SKELETON MUSCLE:
Found where muscles
attach to bone and aid in
movement. The fibers are
long cylinder shapes that
are formed by the
combining of cells,
resulting in multiple
nuclei.

SMOOTH MUSCLE: Found in


the walls of blood vessels and CARDIAC MUSLE: Found
some internal organs. Aids in in heart walls. Its function
the transfer of substances. is to pump blood.
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Nervous Tissue
Nerve tissue consists of Neurons and Neuroglia.

Dendrites
NEURONS: A cell consisting of dendrites, a
body and axon. DENDRITES are branches
off the cell body that receive signals. The
CELL BODY contains a nucleus and
cytoplasm. An AXON carries out nerve
impulses from the body.

NEUROGLIA: Cells found in A


nervous tissue. Neuroglia xon
support neurons through
nourishment.
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell
Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Epithelial Tissue
EPITHELIAL: Constant layer of firmly packed cells.

Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader pages


SIMPLE EPITHELIA: Single layer of cells 68-69

attributed from three cell types.

SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM is a layer found


in lungs and blood vessels. It is made of
compacted cells and aids in protection.

CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM is a layer of cubed


cells found in glands, lining the ovaries
and kidney tubules. Cuboidal epithelium
aids in absorption.

COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM are rectangular


shaped cells with the nuclei at the
bottom. It is found lining the digestive
area and aids in absorption.
Epithelial Tissue Continued
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR
EPITHELIUM lines the trachea and aids in
ejecting impurities. Mucus helps to trap
particles and cilia carries it to the throat
area.

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM lines


organs which stretch. Found in
bladder, urethra and ureters.
STATIFIED EPITHELIA is
found in the nose, Transitional epithelia of
mouth, esophagus, anal bladder
canal and vagina linings.
The cells are stacked
into layers which offer GLANDULAR EPITHELIA is any epithelium
protection. which secretes products. A cell or a
group of cells that secrete products are
known as GLANDS. Secretion to an outer
surface is done by EXOCRINE GLANDS,
whereas ENDOCRINE GLANDS secrete
products internally through the
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 69 and bloodstream.
Cell Junctions
 Cell junctions aid tissues in their functions by joining cells
together either by tight junctions, adhesion junctions or gap
junctions.
A. TIGHT JUNCTIONS: Cell
layers become resilient by
creating a tough barrier by
the joining of plasma
membrane proteins.

B. ADHESION JUNCTIONS:
Cells cytoskeleton fibers are
attached to one another.
Found in tissues which
stretch, like skin.
C. GAP JUNCTIONS: A
junction formed by two
neighboring plasma
membranes, allowing
molecules/ions to circulate Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Integumentary System: Skin and other
organs
EPIDERMIS: Stratified squamous
SKIN: Covers the body, protects tissues, epithelium. Stem cells get new
prevents H2O loss, regulates epidermal cells for skin renewal.
temperature, and protects against
diseases from entering the body. The
skin contains two sections, the DERMIS: Thick fibrous
epidermis and the dermis. Certain cells (collagen and elastic) tissue
can produce Vitamin D with the help of under the epidermis. Allows
UV radiation. movement and flexibility
without tearing. Blood
vessels deliver nutrients to
Epidermi the skin while regulating
s body temperature. Contains
sensory receptors.
SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER:
LAYER
Dermi Constructed of adipose and
s loose connective tissue. Offers
protective layer against external
abuse.

Nails, hair follicles, and sweat


Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Subcutaneous glands are accessory organs of
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Organ System Overview
 INTEGUMENTARY: Skin, hair, hair muscles, nails, blood vessels, glands, and nerves
protect body, regulates body temperature, and creates vitamin D from UV radiation.
 CARDIOVASCULAR: Heart muscle pumps blood into vessels where nutrients/oxygen
are delivered to cells. Blood removes carbon dioxide and cell waste while circulating
heat. Red blood cells transport oxygen while white blood cells fight infections.
Platelets aid in vessel repair. Controls Fluid and pH.
 LYMPHATIC: System collects tissue fluids, absorbs fat, and stores white blood cells.
Helps regulate fluid balance.
 IMMUNE: Includes all cells which help to protect the organism from disease.
 DIGESTIVE: Takes food and breaks it down into nutrient molecules for cells.
Eliminates waste.
 RESPIRATORY: Sustains breathing by taking oxygen in and removing carbon dioxide.
Also helps manage normal pH.
 URINARY: Helps regulate fluid balance and manage normal pH through excretion of
waste products.
 SKELETAL: Gives body shape while protecting organs. Skeletal muscles aid in
movement. Blood cells are created from marrow and minerals are stored in the
system.
 MUSCULAR: Muscle contraction aids in movement and posture. Smooth muscle
helps organs contract which releases heat and warms the body.
 NERVOUS: Brain, spinal cord and nerves receive sensory data which is stored. Nerve
impulses are sent to muscles to aid in movement.
 ENDOCRINE: Glands produce hormones into blood. Aids in control of fluids, pH
balance, and metabolism. Helps maintain reproductive organs.
 REPRODUCTIVE: Creates and moves gametes and hormones; births offspring.
Organ System Overview
Continued
DORSAL CAVITY: Contains the VENTRAL CAVITY: Contains the Thoracic Cavity,
Cranial Cavity and the Vertebral Abdominal Cavity, and Pelvic Cavity.
Cavity.
THORACIC: Heart, lungs, and esophagus
CRANIAL: Brain
ABDOMINAL: Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas,
VERTEBRAL: Spinal Cord Gallbladder, and Intestines
PELVIC: Reproductive organs
Four Types of Body
Membranes
MUCOUS: Loose fibrous epithelial tissue which lines the interior respiratory,
digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Goblet cells secrete mucus to from
bacterial or virus penetration.
SEROUS: Thoracic cavity and lungs are covered by pleurae, heart is covered by
pericardial sac, and the abdominal cavity is covered by the peritoneum. The
abdominal organs are attached to the wall by mesentery (double layer
peritoneum). Membranes remain lubricated by watery secretion.
SYNOVIAL: Loose connective tissue lines cavities of joints and secrete lubricative
solution to keep bones moving freely.
MENINGES: Protective tissue which covers the brain and spinal cord.

A muscle known as DIAPHRAM separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.


Organ System Overview
Continued

Dorsal Cavity

Ventral Cavity

Thoracic Cavity

Abdominal Cavity
Picture from
Human Biology
by Sylvia S.
Mader Page 77
 Tissue Types
 Connective Tissue
 Muscular Tissue
 Nervous Tissue
 Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
 Integumentary System
 Organ System
 Homeostasis
Homeostasis: The body’s capacity to physically regulate its internal
environment is known as HOMEOSTASIS. All systems work together to help
maintain homeostasis.
Picture from Human Biology by
Sylvia S. Mader Page 79

The normal
conditions upheld
in a cell or
organism is known
as Homeostasis.
For example, the
organ systems of
humans all work
together to
perform certain
functions such as
absorbing
nutrients and
oxygen, and
excreting waste.
They also adjust
their processes to
maintain regularity
such as sweating
when the body
Homeostasis Continued
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: The internal environment stays fairly stable due to
negative feedback mechanisms through sensors and the control center.
When a change occurs, a sensor will notify the control center which release
an effect to overturn the change.

Example of
Negative
Feedback Cycle

POSITIVE FEEDBACK: When the internal environment senses stimulation from


nerve impulses, the brain sends positive signals to not only keep the
stimulation going, but to make it stronger.
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